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3qrk, resolution 2.30Å ()
Gene: ABL1, ABL, JTK7 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, with EC number
Related: 3qri, 3qrj

Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


The crystal structure of human abl1 kinase domain in complex with DP-987

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Acquired resistance to ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) through ABL1 kinase domain mutations, particularly the gatekeeper mutant T315I, is a significant problem for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Using structure-based drug design, we developed compounds that bind to residues (Arg386/Glu282) ABL1 uses to switch between inactive and active conformations. The lead "switch-control" inhibitor, DCC-2036, potently inhibits both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated ABL1 by inducing a type II inactive conformation, and retains efficacy against the majority of clinically relevant CML-resistance mutants, including T315I. DCC-2036 inhibits BCR-ABL1(T315I)-expressing cell lines, prolongs survival in mouse models of T315I mutant CML and B-lymphoblastic leukemia, and inhibits primary patient leukemia cells expressing T315I in vitro and in vivo, supporting its clinical development in TKI-resistant Ph(+) leukemia.

Conformational control inhibition of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, including the gatekeeper T315I mutant, by the switch-control inhibitor DCC-2036., Chan WW, Wise SC, Kaufman MD, Ahn YM, Ensinger CL, Haack T, Hood MM, Jones J, Lord JW, Lu WP, Miller D, Patt WC, Smith BD, Petillo PA, Rutkoski TJ, Telikepalli H, Vogeti L, Yao T, Chun L, Clark R, Evangelista P, Gavrilescu LC, Lazarides K, Zaleskas VM, Stewart LJ, Van Etten RA, Flynn DL, Cancer Cell. 2011 Apr 12;19(4):556-68. PMID:21481795

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[ABL1_HUMAN] Note=A chromosomal aberration involving ABL1 is a cause of chronic myeloid leukemia. Translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) with BCR. The translocation produces a BCR-ABL found also in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).


[ABL1_HUMAN] Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many key processes linked to cell growth and survival such as cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, cell motility and adhesion, receptor endocytosis, autophagy, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Coordinates actin remodeling through tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins controlling cytoskeleton dynamics like WASF3 (involved in branch formation); ANXA1 (involved in membrane anchoring); DBN1, DBNL, CTTN, RAPH1 and ENAH (involved in signaling); or MAPT and PXN (microtubule-binding proteins). Phosphorylation of WASF3 is critical for the stimulation of lamellipodia formation and cell migration. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of key regulators of these processes such as BCAR1, CRK, CRKL, DOK1, EFS or NEDD9. Phosphorylates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases and more particularly promotes endocytosis of EGFR, facilitates the formation of neuromuscular synapses through MUSK, inhibits PDGFRB-mediated chemotaxis and modulates the endocytosis of activated B-cell receptor complexes. Other substrates which are involved in endocytosis regulation are the caveolin (CAV1) and RIN1. Moreover, ABL1 regulates the CBL family of ubiquitin ligases that drive receptor down-regulation and actin remodeling. Phosphorylation of CBL leads to increased EGFR stability. Involved in late-stage autophagy by regulating positively the trafficking and function of lysosomal components. ABL1 targets to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress and thereby mediates mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. ABL1 is also translocated in the nucleus where it has DNA-binding activity and is involved in DNA-damage response and apoptosis. Many substrates are known mediators of DNA repair: DDB1, DDB2, ERCC3, ERCC6, RAD9A, RAD51, RAD52 or WRN. Activates the proapoptotic pathway when the DNA damage is too severe to be repaired. Phosphorylates TP73, a primary regulator for this type of damage-induced apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspase CASP9 on 'Tyr-153' and regulates its processing in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Phosphorylates PSMA7 that leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks. ABL1 acts also as a regulator of multiple pathological signaling cascades during infection. Several known tyrosine-phosphorylated microbial proteins have been identified as ABL1 substrates. This is the case of A36R of Vaccinia virus, Tir (translocated intimin receptor) of pathogenic E.coli and possibly Citrobacter, CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) of H.pylori, or AnkA (ankyrin repeat-containing protein A) of A.phagocytophilum. Pathogens can highjack ABL1 kinase signaling to reorganize the host actin cytoskeleton for multiple purposes, like facilitating intracellular movement and host cell exit. Finally, functions as its own regulator through autocatalytic activity as well as through phosphorylation of its inhibitor, ABI1.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

About this Structure

3qrk is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.


  • Chan WW, Wise SC, Kaufman MD, Ahn YM, Ensinger CL, Haack T, Hood MM, Jones J, Lord JW, Lu WP, Miller D, Patt WC, Smith BD, Petillo PA, Rutkoski TJ, Telikepalli H, Vogeti L, Yao T, Chun L, Clark R, Evangelista P, Gavrilescu LC, Lazarides K, Zaleskas VM, Stewart LJ, Van Etten RA, Flynn DL. Conformational control inhibition of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, including the gatekeeper T315I mutant, by the switch-control inhibitor DCC-2036. Cancer Cell. 2011 Apr 12;19(4):556-68. PMID:21481795 doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2011.03.003
  1. Yuan ZM, Huang Y, Ishiko T, Kharbanda S, Weichselbaum R, Kufe D. Regulation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Feb 18;94(4):1437-40. PMID:9037071
  2. Han L, Wong D, Dhaka A, Afar D, White M, Xie W, Herschman H, Witte O, Colicelli J. Protein binding and signaling properties of RIN1 suggest a unique effector function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 May 13;94(10):4954-9. PMID:9144171
  3. Yuan ZM, Huang Y, Ishiko T, Nakada S, Utsugisawa T, Kharbanda S, Wang R, Sung P, Shinohara A, Weichselbaum R, Kufe D. Regulation of Rad51 function by c-Abl in response to DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 13;273(7):3799-802. PMID:9461559
  4. Agami R, Blandino G, Oren M, Shaul Y. Interaction of c-Abl and p73alpha and their collaboration to induce apoptosis. Nature. 1999 Jun 24;399(6738):809-13. PMID:10391250 doi:10.1038/21697
  5. Kitao H, Yuan ZM. Regulation of ionizing radiation-induced Rad52 nuclear foci formation by c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 13;277(50):48944-8. Epub 2002 Oct 11. PMID:12379650 doi:10.1074/jbc.M208151200
  6. Yoshida K, Komatsu K, Wang HG, Kufe D. c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates the human Rad9 checkpoint protein in response to DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 May;22(10):3292-300. PMID:11971963
  7. Sanguinetti AR, Mastick CC. c-Abl is required for oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on tyrosine 14. Cell Signal. 2003 Mar;15(3):289-98. PMID:12531427
  8. Tani K, Sato S, Sukezane T, Kojima H, Hirose H, Hanafusa H, Shishido T. Abl interactor 1 promotes tyrosine 296 phosphorylation of mammalian enabled (Mena) by c-Abl kinase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13;278(24):21685-92. Epub 2003 Apr 2. PMID:12672821 doi:10.1074/jbc.M301447200
  9. Grossmann AH, Kolibaba KS, Willis SG, Corbin AS, Langdon WS, Deininger MW, Druker BJ. Catalytic domains of tyrosine kinases determine the phosphorylation sites within c-Cbl. FEBS Lett. 2004 Nov 19;577(3):555-62. PMID:15556646 doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.10.054
  10. Perkinton MS, Standen CL, Lau KF, Kesavapany S, Byers HL, Ward M, McLoughlin DM, Miller CC. The c-Abl tyrosine kinase phosphorylates the Fe65 adaptor protein to stimulate Fe65/amyloid precursor protein nuclear signaling. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 21;279(21):22084-91. Epub 2004 Mar 18. PMID:15031292 doi:10.1074/jbc.M311479200
  11. Hu H, Bliss JM, Wang Y, Colicelli J. RIN1 is an ABL tyrosine kinase activator and a regulator of epithelial-cell adhesion and migration. Curr Biol. 2005 May 10;15(9):815-23. PMID:15886098 doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.03.049
  12. Raina D, Pandey P, Ahmad R, Bharti A, Ren J, Kharbanda S, Weichselbaum R, Kufe D. c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates caspase-9 autocleavage in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 25;280(12):11147-51. Epub 2005 Jan 18. PMID:15657060 doi:10.1074/jbc.M413787200
  13. Tanos B, Pendergast AM. Abl tyrosine kinase regulates endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32714-23. Epub 2006 Aug 29. PMID:16943190 doi:10.1074/jbc.M603126200
  14. Liu X, Huang W, Li C, Li P, Yuan J, Li X, Qiu XB, Ma Q, Cao C. Interaction between c-Abl and Arg tyrosine kinases and proteasome subunit PSMA7 regulates proteasome degradation. Mol Cell. 2006 May 5;22(3):317-27. PMID:16678104 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.04.007
  15. Boyle SN, Michaud GA, Schweitzer B, Predki PF, Koleske AJ. A critical role for cortactin phosphorylation by Abl-family kinases in PDGF-induced dorsal-wave formation. Curr Biol. 2007 Mar 6;17(5):445-51. Epub 2007 Feb 15. PMID:17306540 doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.01.057
  16. Sossey-Alaoui K, Li X, Cowell JK. c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of WAVE3 is required for lamellipodia formation and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 7;282(36):26257-65. Epub 2007 Jul 9. PMID:17623672 doi:10.1074/jbc.M701484200
  17. Xiong X, Cui P, Hossain S, Xu R, Warner B, Guo X, An X, Debnath AK, Cowburn D, Kotula L. Allosteric inhibition of the nonMyristoylated c-Abl tyrosine kinase by phosphopeptides derived from Abi1/Hssh3bp1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 May;1783(5):737-47. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.01.028., Epub 2008 Feb 15. PMID:18328268 doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.01.028
  18. Yogalingam G, Pendergast AM. Abl kinases regulate autophagy by promoting the trafficking and function of lysosomal components. J Biol Chem. 2008 Dec 19;283(51):35941-53. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M804543200. Epub 2008, Oct 21. PMID:18945674 doi:10.1074/jbc.M804543200
  19. Fernow I, Tomasovic A, Siehoff-Icking A, Tikkanen R. Cbl-associated protein is tyrosine phosphorylated by c-Abl and c-Src kinases. BMC Cell Biol. 2009 Nov 5;10:80. doi: 10.1186/1471-2121-10-80. PMID:19891780 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-10-80
  20. Michael M, Vehlow A, Navarro C, Krause M. c-Abl, Lamellipodin, and Ena/VASP proteins cooperate in dorsal ruffling of fibroblasts and axonal morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2010 May 11;20(9):783-91. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.03.048. Epub 2010, Apr 22. PMID:20417104 doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.03.048
  21. Young MA, Shah NP, Chao LH, Seeliger M, Milanov ZV, Biggs WH 3rd, Treiber DK, Patel HK, Zarrinkar PP, Lockhart DJ, Sawyers CL, Kuriyan J. Structure of the kinase domain of an imatinib-resistant Abl mutant in complex with the Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680. Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;66(2):1007-14. PMID:16424036 doi:http://dx.doi.org/66/2/1007
  22. Wojcik J, Hantschel O, Grebien F, Kaupe I, Bennett KL, Barkinge J, Jones RB, Koide A, Superti-Furga G, Koide S. A potent and highly specific FN3 monobody inhibitor of the Abl SH2 domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010 Apr;17(4):519-27. Epub 2010 Mar 28. PMID:20357770 doi:10.1038/nsmb.1793

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