Crystal structure of the von Willebrand factor A3 domain in complex with a collagen III derived triple-helical peptide
[VWF_HUMAN] Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) [MIM:193400]. A common hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 1 is characterized by partial quantitative deficiency of circulating von Willebrand factor, that is otherwise structurally and functionally normal. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma.  Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 2 (VWD2) [MIM:613554]. A hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 2 is characterized by qualitative deficiency and functional anomalies of von Willebrand factor. It is divided in different subtypes including 2A, 2B, 2M and 2N (Normandy variant). The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in type 2N is defective in its ability to bind factor VIII. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) [MIM:277480]. A severe hemorrhagic disorder due to a total or near total absence of von Willebrand factor in the plasma and cellular compartments, also leading to a profound deficiency of plasmatic factor VIII. Bleeding usually starts in infancy and can include epistaxis, recurrent mucocutaneous bleeding, excessive bleeding after minor trauma, and hemarthroses.
[VWF_HUMAN] Important in the maintenance of hemostasis, it promotes adhesion of platelets to the sites of vascular injury by forming a molecular bridge between sub-endothelial collagen matrix and platelet-surface receptor complex GPIb-IX-V. Also acts as a chaperone for coagulation factor VIII, delivering it to the site of injury, stabilizing its heterodimeric structure and protecting it from premature clearance from plasma.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Fibrillar collagens, the most abundant proteins in the vertebrate body, are involved in a plethora of biological interactions. Plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) mediates adhesion of blood platelets to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III, which is essential for normal haemostasis. High affinity VWF-binding sequences have been identified in the homotrimeric collagen types II and III, however, it is unclear how VWF recognizes the heterotrimeric collagen type I, the superstructure of which is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of VWF domain A3 bound to a collagen type III-derived homotrimeric peptide. Our structure reveals that VWF-A3 interacts with all three collagen chains and binds through conformational selection to a sequence that is one triplet longer than was previously appreciated from platelet and VWF binding studies. The VWF-binding site overlaps those of SPARC (also known as osteonectin) and discodin domain receptor 2, but is more extended and shifted toward the collagen amino terminus. The observed collagen-binding mode of VWF-A3 provides direct structural constraints on collagen I chain registry. A VWF-binding site can be generated from the sequences RGQAGVMF, present in the two alpha1(I) chains, and RGEOGNIGF, in the unique alpha2(I) chain, provided that alpha2(I) is in the middle or trailing position. Combining these data with previous structural data on integrin binding to collagen yields strong support for the trailing position of the alpha2(I) chain, shedding light on the fundamental and long-standing question of the collagen I chain registry.
Implications for collagen I chain registry from the structure of the collagen von Willebrand factor A3 domain complex.,Brondijk TH, Bihan D, Farndale RW, Huizinga EG Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 21. PMID:22440751
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.