Crystal structure of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I apo form
[KCC1A_HUMAN] Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon calcium influx, regulates transcription activators activity, cell cycle, hormone production, cell differentiation, actin filament organization and neurite outgrowth. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [MVLIF]-x-R-x(2)-[ST]-x(3)-[MVLIF]. Regulates axonal extension and growth cone motility in hippocampal and cerebellar nerve cells. Upon NMDA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevation, promotes dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons and is essential in synapses for full long-term potentiation (LTP) and ERK2-dependent translational activation. Downstream of NMDA receptors, promotes the formation of spines and synapses in hippocampal neurons by phosphorylating ARHGEF7/BETAPIX on 'Ser-694', which results in the enhancement of ARHGEF7 activity and activation of RAC1. Promotes neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth by activation and phosphorylation of MARK2 on 'Ser-91', 'Ser-92', 'Ser-93' and 'Ser-294'. Promotes nuclear export of HDAC5 and binding to 14-3-3 by phosphorylation of 'Ser-259' and 'Ser-498' in the regulation of muscle cell differentiation. Regulates NUMB-mediated endocytosis by phosphorylation of NUMB on 'Ser-276' and 'Ser-295'. Involved in the regulation of basal and estrogen-stimulated migration of medulloblastoma cells through ARHGEF7/BETAPIX phosphorylation (By similarity). Is required for proper activation of cyclin-D1/CDK4 complex during G1 progression in diploid fibroblasts. Plays a role in K(+) and ANG2-mediated regulation of the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) to produce aldosterone in the adrenal cortex. Phosphorylates EIF4G3/eIF4GII. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1, ATF1, CFTR, MYL9 and SYN1/synapsin I.       
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) plays pivotal roles in the nervous system. The activity of human CaMKI is regulated by a regulatory region including an autoinhibitory segment and a CaM-binding segment. We report here four structures of three CaMKIalpha truncates in apo form and in complexes with ATP. In an apo, autoinhibited structure, the activation segment adopts a unique helical conformation which together with the autoinhibitory segment constrains helices alphaC and alphaD in inactive conformations, sequesters Thr177 from being phosphorylated, and occludes the substrate-binding site. In an ATP-bound, inactive structure, the activation segment is largely disordered and the CaM-binding segment protrudes out ready for CaM binding. In an ATP-bound, active structure, the regulatory region is dissociated from the catalytic core and the catalytic site assumes an active conformation. Detailed structural analyses reveal the interplay of the regulatory region, the activation segment, and the nucleotide-binding site in the regulation of CaMKI.
Crystal structures of human CaMKIalpha reveal insights into the regulation mechanism of CaMKI.,Zha M, Zhong C, Ou Y, Han L, Wang J, Ding J PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044828. Epub 2012 Sep 20. PMID:23028635
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