Amylase

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Amylase complex with Ca+2 (green) and Na+ (purple) ions (PDB code 1hvx)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Yamamoto T.1988. Handbook of Amylases and Related Enzymes: Their Sources, Isolation Methods, Properties and Applications. Osaka Japan: Pergamon Press
  2. 2.0 2.1 Aghajari N, Feller G, Gerday C, Haser R. Crystal structures of the psychrophilic alpha-amylase from Alteromonas haloplanctis in its native form and complexed with an inhibitor. Protein Sci. 1998 Mar;7(3):564-72. PMID:9541387
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Suvd D, Fujimoto Z, Takase K, Matsumura M, Mizuno H. Crystal structure of Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase: possible factors determining the thermostability. J Biochem. 2001 Mar;129(3):461-8. PMID:11226887
  4. French D. Amylases: enzymatic mechanisms. Basic Life Sci. 1981;18:151-82. PMID:6168260
  5. Hii SL, Tan JS, Ling TC, Ariff AB. Pullulanase: role in starch hydrolysis and potential industrial applications. Enzyme Res. 2012;2012:921362. doi: 10.1155/2012/921362. Epub 2012 Sep 6. PMID:22991654 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/921362
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Aghajari N, Feller G, Gerday C, Haser R. Structural basis of alpha-amylase activation by chloride. Protein Sci. 2002 Jun;11(6):1435-41. PMID:12021442
  7. Maurus R, Begum A, Williams LK, Fredriksen JR, Zhang R, Withers SG, Brayer GD. Alternative catalytic anions differentially modulate human alpha-amylase activity and specificity(,). Biochemistry. 2008 Mar 18;47(11):3332-44. Epub 2008 Feb 20. PMID:18284212 doi:10.1021/bi701652t
  8. 8.0 8.1 Maurus R, Begum A, Williams LK, Fredriksen JR, Zhang R, Withers SG, Brayer GD. Alternative catalytic anions differentially modulate human alpha-amylase activity and specificity(,). Biochemistry. 2008 Mar 18;47(11):3332-44. Epub 2008 Feb 20. PMID:18284212 doi:10.1021/bi701652t
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Kuriki T, Imanaka T. The concept of the alpha-amylase family: structural similarity and common catalytic mechanism. J Biosci Bioeng. 1999;87(5):557-65. PMID:16232518
  10. 10.0 10.1 PPMID: 17713601
  11. Franco OL, Rigden DJ, Melo FR, Grossi-De-Sa MF. Plant alpha-amylase inhibitors and their interaction with insect alpha-amylases. Eur J Biochem. 2002 Jan;269(2):397-412. PMID:11856298
  12. Yang RW, Shao ZX, Chen YY, Yin Z, Wang WJ. Lipase and pancreatic amylase activities in diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with hyperamylasemia. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2005 Nov;4(4):600-3. PMID:16286272
  13. Agirre J, Moroz O, Meier S, Brask J, Munch A, Hoff T, Andersen C, Wilson KS, Davies GJ. The structure of the AliC GH13 alpha-amylase from Alicyclobacillus sp. reveals the accommodation of starch branching points in the alpha-amylase family. Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol. 2019 Jan 1;75(Pt 1):1-7. doi:, 10.1107/S2059798318014900. Epub 2019 Jan 4. PMID:30644839 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2059798318014900
  14. Machius M, Declerck N, Huber R, Wiegand G. Activation of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase through a disorder-->order transition of the substrate-binding site mediated by a calcium-sodium-calcium metal triad. Structure. 1998 Mar 15;6(3):281-92. PMID:9551551
  15. Brzozowski AM, Lawson DM, Turkenburg JP, Bisgaard-Frantzen H, Svendsen A, Borchert TV, Dauter Z, Wilson KS, Davies GJ. Structural analysis of a chimeric bacterial alpha-amylase. High-resolution analysis of native and ligand complexes. Biochemistry. 2000 Aug 8;39(31):9099-107. PMID:10924103

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