Indinavir

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Indinavir, better known as Crixivan, (1hsg)

Better Known as: Crixivan

  • Marketed By: Merck & Co.
  • Major Indication: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
  • Drug Class: HIV Protease Inhibitor
  • Date of FDA Approval (Patent Expiration): 1996 (2014)
  • 2009 Sales: $200 Million
  • Importance: At the time of its approval, it was far more powerful than prior antiretroviral drugs. Has subsequently been largely replaced with newer drugs which are less likely to promote resistance, such as Lopinavir and Atazanavir
  • See Pharmaceutical Drugs for more information about other drugs and diseases.

Mechanism of Action

When HIV infects a host, it directs the synthesis of several polyproteins. The maturation of the virus to its infectious form requires that these polyproteins be cleaved to their component proteins by HIV Protease. The subunits of come together to form a catalytic tunnel capable of binding the nascent peptides and cleaving them into their mature form. Within this tunnel lies , which contain the . These catalytic Asp residues carry out the hydrolytic cleavage of the polyprotein. Indinavir to these conserved sequences within the HIV Protease tunnel, preventing the nascent polyproteins from entering. Unable to actively cleave the nascent proteins into their appropriate form, HIV is unable to mature and proliferate, allowing the patients immune system to fight off the infection more easily.[1][2]

Drug Resistance

The biggest difficulty with treating HIV is the rapidity at which it mutates and becomes resistant to treatments. To view a comprehensive and interactive analysis of the mutations which confer drug resistance to HIV Protease, See: HIV Protease Inhibitor Resistance Profile

Pharmacokinetics

HIV Protease Inhibitor Pharmacokinetics
Parameter Ritonavir Tipranavir Indinavir Saquinavir Amprenavir Fosamprenavir Lopinavir Darunavir Atazanavir Nelfinavir
Tmax (hr) 4.4 ~3 1.5 3.7 .98 1.5-4 2 .5 2-4 3.1
Cmax (ng/ml) 13120 14600 8100 2297 4901 4820 11.9 2730 ~4393 4701
Bioavailability (%) -- -- 65 4 -- -- -- -- 68 20-80
Protein Binding (%) 99 >99 61 98 90 90 99 95 86 98
T1/2 (hr) 4.8 4.2 1.2 4.5 5.5 7.7 6.1 29.4 5.3 3.3
AUC (ng/ml/hr) 128100 46500 20900 13467 11999 35000 117600 4746 ~26045 31906
Clearance (L/h) ~8.4 32.4 49.5 36.7 56.8 84.4 1.7 32.8 13.6 37.3
Dosage (mg) 600 600 800 1000 600 1400 280 400 400 1250
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP3A4 & CYP2C19) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4 & CYP3A5) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4) Hepatic (CYP3A4)

For Pharmacokinetic Data References, See: References

References

  1. Spinelli S, Liu QZ, Alzari PM, Hirel PH, Poljak RJ. The three-dimensional structure of the aspartyl protease from the HIV-1 isolate BRU. Biochimie. 1991 Nov;73(11):1391-6. PMID:1799632
  2. Mahalingam B, Wang YF, Boross PI, Tozser J, Louis JM, Harrison RW, Weber IT. Crystal structures of HIV protease V82A and L90M mutants reveal changes in the indinavir-binding site. Eur J Biochem. 2004 Apr;271(8):1516-24. PMID:15066177 doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04060.x


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