Insulin glargine

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Insulin glargine is made up of two subunits, denoted A and B (PDB code 4iyd)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 McKeage, K., & Goa, K. L. (2001). Insulin glargine. Drugs, 61(11), 1599-1624. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161110-00007
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Baeshen, N. A., Baeshen, M. N., Sheikh, A., Bora, R. S., Ahmed, M. M. M., Ramadan, H. A., ... & Redwan, E. M. (2014). Cell factories for insulin production. Microbial cell factories, 13(1), 141. doi: 10.1186/s12934-014-0141-0
  3. Walsh, G. (2005). Therapeutic insulins and their large-scale manufacture. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 67(2), 151-159. doi:10.1007/s00253-004-1809-x
  4. 4.0 4.1 Barba de la Rosa, A. P., Lara-Gonzalez, S., Montero-Moran, G. M., Escobedo-Moratilla, A., and Perez-Urizar, J.T. Physiochemical and structural analysis of a biosimilar insulin glargine formulation and its reference. In Press. doi:10.2210/pdb4iyd/pdb
  5. Gortner, R. A., & Hoffmann, W. F. (1925). l-Cystine. Organic Syntheses, 5, 39. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.005.0039
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Agin, A., Jeandidier, N., Gasser, F., Grucker, F., and Sapin, R. (2007) Glargine blood biotransformation: in vitro appraisal with human insulin immunoassay, Diabetes and Metabolism 33, 205-212. doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2006.12.002
  7. 7.0 7.1 Bolli, G. B. & Owens, D. R. (2000). Insulin glargine. The Lancet, 356(9228), 443-445. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02546-0
  8. Kuerzel, G. U., Shukla, U., Scholtz, H. E.,Pretorius, S. G., Wessels, D. H., Venter, C., Potgieter, M. A., Lang, A. M., Koose, T. & Bernhardt, E. (2003). Biotransformation of insulin glargine after subcutaneous injection in healthy subjects, Current Medical Research and Opinion, 19:1, 34-40.
  9. Lucidi, P., Porcellati, F., Candeloro, P., Cioli, P., Marinelli Andreoli, A., Marzotti, S., Schmidt, R., Bolli, G.B. & Fanelli, C.G. (2014). Glargine metabolism over 24 h following its subcutaneous injection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A dose response study. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, 24, 709-716. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.02.008
  10. Kurtzhals, P., Schäffer, L., Sørensen, A., Kristensen, C., Jonassen, I., Schmid, C., & Trüb, T. (2000). Correlations of receptor binding and metabolic and mitogenic potencies of insulin analogs designed for clinical use. Diabetes, 49(6), 999-1005. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.49.6.999
  11. Havelund, S., Plum, A., Ribel, U., Jonassen, I., Vølund, A., Markussen, J., & Kurtzhals, P. (2004). The mechanism of protraction of insulin detemir, a long-acting, acylated analog of human insulin. Pharmaceutical research, 21(8), 1498-1504. doi:10.1023/B:PHAM.0000036926.54824.37

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