SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE METHIONINE-OXIDIZED AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDE (1-40). DOES OXIDATION AFFECT CONFORMATIONAL SWITCHING? NMR, 10 STRUCTURES
[A4_HUMAN] Defects in APP are the cause of Alzheimer disease type 1 (AD1) [MIM:104300]. AD1 is a familial early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. It can be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituent of these plaques is the neurotoxic amyloid-beta-APP 40-42 peptide (s), derived proteolytically from the transmembrane precursor protein APP by sequential secretase processing. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products such as C31 derived from APP, are also implicated in neuronal death.                          Defects in APP are the cause of cerebral amyloid angiopathy APP-related (CAA-APP) [MIM:605714]. A hereditary localized amyloidosis due to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition in the cerebral vessels. The principal clinical characteristics are recurrent cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhages, recurrent strokes, cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and progressive mental deterioration. Patients develop cerebral hemorrhage because of the severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Parenchymal amyloid deposits are rare and largely in the form of pre-amyloid lesions or diffuse plaque-like structures. They are Congo red negative and lack the dense amyloid cores commonly present in Alzheimer disease. Some affected individuals manifest progressive aphasic dementia, leukoencephalopathy, and occipital calcifications.    
[A4_HUMAN] Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.     Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with Also bind GPC1 in lipid rafts.     Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain (By similarity).     The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.     N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).    
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The solution structure of Abeta(1-40)Met(O), the methionine-oxidized form of amyloid beta-peptide Abeta(1-40), has been investigated by CD and NMR spectroscopy. Oxidation of Met35 may have implications in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Circular dichroism experiments showed that whereas Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-40)Met(O) both adopt essentially random coil structures in water (pH 4) at micromolar concentrations, the former aggregates within several days while the latter is stable for at least 7 days under these conditions. This remarkable difference led us to determine the solution structure of Abeta(1-40)Met(O) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. In a water-SDS micelle medium needed to solubilize both peptides at the millimolar concentrations required to measure NMR spectra, chemical shift and NOE data for Abeta(1-40)Met(O) strongly suggest the presence of a helical region between residues 16 and 24. This is supported by slow H-D exchange of amide protons in this region and by structure calculations using simulated annealing with the program XPLOR. The remainder of the structure is relatively disordered. Our previously reported NMR data for Abeta(1-40) in the same solvent shows that helices are present over residues 15-24 (helix 1) and 28-36 (helix 2). Oxidation of Met35 thus causes a local and selective disruption of helix 2. In addition to this helix-coil rearrangement in aqueous micelles, the CD data show that oxidation inhibits a coil-to-beta-sheet transition in water. These significant structural rearrangements in the C-terminal region of Abeta may be important clues to the chemistry and biology of Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42).
Solution structure of methionine-oxidized amyloid beta-peptide (1-40). Does oxidation affect conformational switching?,Watson AA, Fairlie DP, Craik DJ Biochemistry. 1998 Sep 15;37(37):12700-6. PMID:9737846
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.