NMR STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN INSULIN-HIS(B16)
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Site-directed mutagenesis is used in conjunction with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in order to find an insulin species amenable for structure determination in aqueous solution by NMR spectroscopy. A successful candidate in this respect, i.e., B16 Tyr-->His mutant insulin, is identified and selected for detailed characterization by two-dimensional 1H NMR. This mutant species retains 43% biological potency and native folding stability, but in contrast to human insulin it remains monomeric at millimolar concentration in aqueous solution at pH 2.4. The resulting homogeneous sample allows high-quality 2D NMR spectra to be recorded. The NMR studies result in an almost complete assignment of the 1H resonance signals as well as identification of NOE cross peaks. NOE-derived distance restraints in conjunction with torsion restraints based on measured coupling constants, 3JHNH alpha, are used for structure calculations using the hybrid method of distance geometry and simulated annealing. The calculated structures show that the major part of the insulin monomer is structurally well-defined with an average rms deviation between the 20 calculated structures and the mean coordinates of 0.89 A for all backbone atoms, 0.46 A for backbone atoms (A2-A19 and B4-B28), and 1.30 A for all heavy atoms. The structure of the A-chain is composed of two helices from A2 to A7 and from A12 to A19 connected by a short extended strand. The B-chain consists of a loop, B1-B8, an alpha-helix, B9-B19, a beta-turn, B20-B23, and an extended strand from B24 to B30.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
High-resolution structure of an engineered biologically potent insulin monomer, B16 Tyr-->His, as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.,Ludvigsen S, Roy M, Thogersen H, Kaarsholm NC Biochemistry. 1994 Jul 5;33(26):7998-8006. PMID:8025104
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.