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SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF PIN1 WW DOMAIN COMPLEXED WITH HUMAN TAU PHOSPHOTHREONINE PEPTIDE
[TAU_HUMAN] Note=In Alzheimer disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brain is progressively disrupted and replaced by tangles of paired helical filaments (PHF) and straight filaments, mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of TAU (PHF-TAU or AD P-TAU). O-GlcNAcylation is greatly reduced in Alzheimer disease brain cerebral cortex leading to an increase in TAU/MAPT phosphorylations.   Defects in MAPT are a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) [MIM:600274]; also called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) or historically termed Pick complex. This form of frontotemporal dementia is characterized by presenile dementia with behavioral changes, deterioration of cognitive capacities and loss of memory. In some cases, parkinsonian symptoms are prominent. Neuropathological changes include frontotemporal atrophy often associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, amygdala. In most cases, protein tau deposits are found in glial cells and/or neurons.                         Defects in MAPT are a cause of Pick disease of the brain (PIDB) [MIM:172700]. It is a rare form of dementia pathologically defined by severe atrophy, neuronal loss and gliosis. It is characterized by the occurrence of tau-positive inclusions, swollen neurons (Pick cells) and argentophilic neuronal inclusions known as Pick bodies that disproportionally affect the frontal and temporal cortical regions. Clinical features include aphasia, apraxia, confusion, anomia, memory loss and personality deterioration.        Note=Defects in MAPT are a cause of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). It is marked by extrapyramidal signs and apraxia and can be associated with memory loss. Neuropathologic features may overlap Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson disease.   Defects in MAPT are a cause of progressive supranuclear palsy type 1 (PSNP1) [MIM:601104]; also abbreviated as PSP and also known as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. PSNP1 is characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome, supranuclear gaze palsy, pyramidal tract dysfunction, pseudobulbar signs and cognitive capacities deterioration. Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis but no amyloid plaques are found in diseased brains. Most cases appear to be sporadic, with a significant association with a common haplotype including the MAPT gene and the flanking regions. Familial cases show an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission with incomplete penetrance; genetic analysis of a few cases showed the occurrence of tau mutations, including a deletion of Asn-613.         Defects in MAPT are a cause of Parkinson-dementia syndrome (PARDE) [MIM:260540]. A syndrome characterized by parkinsonism tremor, rigidity, dementia, ophthalmoparesis and pyramidal signs. Neurofibrillary degeneration occurs in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei.  
[TAU_HUMAN] Promotes microtubule assembly and stability, and might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. The C-terminus binds axonal microtubules while the N-terminus binds neural plasma membrane components, suggesting that tau functions as a linker protein between both. Axonal polarity is predetermined by TAU/MAPT localization (in the neuronal cell) in the domain of the cell body defined by the centrosome. The short isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization. [PIN1_HUMAN] Essential PPIase that regulates mitosis presumably by interacting with NIMA and attenuating its mitosis-promoting activity. Displays a preference for an acidic residue N-terminal to the isomerized proline bond. Catalyzes pSer/Thr-Pro cis/trans isomerizations. Down-regulates kinase activity of BTK. Can transactivate multiple oncogenes and induce centrosome amplification, chromosome instability and cell transformation. Required for the efficient dephosphorylation and recycling of RAF1 after mitogen activation.  
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The recent crystal structure of Pin1 protein bound to a doubly phosphorylated peptide from the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II revealed that binding interactions between Pin1 and its substrate take place through its Trp-Trp (WW) domain at the level of the loop Ser(11)-Arg(12) and the aromatic pair Tyr(18)-Trp(29), and showed a trans conformation for both pSer-Pro peptide bonds. However, the orientation of the ligand in the aromatic recognition groove still could be sequence-specific, as previously observed in SH3 domains complexed by peptide ligands or for different class of WW domains (Zarrinpar, A., and Lim, W. A. (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 611-613). Because the bound peptide conformation could also differ as observed for peptide ligands bound to the 14-3-3 domain, ligand orientation and conformation for two other biologically relevant monophosphate substrates, one derived from the Cdc25 phosphatase of Xenopus laevis (EQPLpTPVTDL) and another from the human tau protein (KVSVVRpTPPKSPS) in complex with the WW domain are here studied by solution NMR methods. First, the proton resonance perturbations on the WW domain upon complexation with both peptide ligands were determined to be essentially located in the positively charged beta-hairpin Ser(11)-Gly(15) and around the aromatic Trp(29). Dissociation equilibrium constants of 117 and 230 microm for Cdc25 and tau peptides, respectively, were found. Several intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects between WW domain and substrates were obtained from a ligand-saturated solution and were used to determine the structures of the complexes in solution. We found a similar N to C orientation as the one observed in the crystal complex structure of Pin1 and a trans conformation for the pThr-Pro peptidic bond in both peptide ligands, thereby indicating a unique binding scheme for the Pin1 WW domain to its multiple substrates.
1H NMR study on the binding of Pin1 Trp-Trp domain with phosphothreonine peptides.,Wintjens R, Wieruszeski JM, Drobecq H, Rousselot-Pailley P, Buee L, Lippens G, Landrieu I J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 6;276(27):25150-6. Epub 2001 Apr 19. PMID:11313338
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.