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1kld, 16 NMR models ()
Related: 1kla, 1klc
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml



Publication Abstract from PubMed

The three-dimensional solution structure of human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been determined using multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a hybrid distance geometry/ simulated annealing algorithm. It represents one of the first examples of a mammalian protein structure that has been solved by isotopic labeling of the protein in a eukaryotic cell line and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The solution structure of the 25 kDa disulfide-linked TGF-beta 1 homodimer was calculated from over 3200 distance and dihedral angle restraints. The final ensemble of 33 accepted structures had no NOE or dihedral angle violations greater than 0.30 A and 5.0 degrees, respectively. The RMSD of backbone atoms for the ensemble of 33 structures relative to their mean structure was 1.1 A when all residues were used in the alignment and 0.7 A when loop regions were omitted. The solution structure of TGF-beta 1 follows two independently determined crystal structures of TGF-beta 2 (Daopin et al., 1992, 1993; Schlunegger & Grutter, 1992, 1993), providing the first opportunity to examine structural differences between the two isoforms at the molecular level. Although the structures are very similar, with an RMSD in backbone atom positions of 1.4 A when loop regions are omitted in the alignment and 1.9 A when all residues are considered, there are several notable differences in structure and flexibility which may be related to function. The clearest example of these is in the beta-turn from residues 69-72: the turn type found in the solution structure of TGF-beta 1 falls into the category of type II, whereas that present in the X-ray crystal structure of TGF-beta 2 is more consistent with a type I turn conformation. This may be of functional significance as studies using TGF-beta chimeras and deletion mutants indicate that this portion of the molecule may be important in receptor binding.

Transforming growth factor beta 1: three-dimensional structure in solution and comparison with the X-ray structure of transforming growth factor beta 2., Hinck AP, Archer SJ, Qian SW, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Weatherbee JA, Tsang ML, Lucas R, Zhang BL, Wenker J, Torchia DA, Biochemistry. 1996 Jul 2;35(26):8517-34. PMID:8679613

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[TGFB1_HUMAN] Defects in TGFB1 are the cause of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CE) [MIM:131300]; also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia 1 (DPD1). CE is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. The disease typically presents in early childhood with pain, muscular weakness and waddling gait, and in some cases other features such as exophthalmos, facial paralysis, hearing difficulties and loss of vision.[1][2][3][4][5]


[TGFB1_HUMAN] Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts.

About this Structure

1kld is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full experimental information is available from OCA.


  • Hinck AP, Archer SJ, Qian SW, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Weatherbee JA, Tsang ML, Lucas R, Zhang BL, Wenker J, Torchia DA. Transforming growth factor beta 1: three-dimensional structure in solution and comparison with the X-ray structure of transforming growth factor beta 2. Biochemistry. 1996 Jul 2;35(26):8517-34. PMID:8679613 doi:10.1021/bi9604946
  1. Kinoshita A, Saito T, Tomita H, Makita Y, Yoshida K, Ghadami M, Yamada K, Kondo S, Ikegawa S, Nishimura G, Fukushima Y, Nakagomi T, Saito H, Sugimoto T, Kamegaya M, Hisa K, Murray JC, Taniguchi N, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K. Domain-specific mutations in TGFB1 result in Camurati-Engelmann disease. Nat Genet. 2000 Sep;26(1):19-20. PMID:10973241 doi:10.1038/79128
  2. Janssens K, Gershoni-Baruch R, Guanabens N, Migone N, Ralston S, Bonduelle M, Lissens W, Van Maldergem L, Vanhoenacker F, Verbruggen L, Van Hul W. Mutations in the gene encoding the latency-associated peptide of TGF-beta 1 cause Camurati-Engelmann disease. Nat Genet. 2000 Nov;26(3):273-5. PMID:11062463 doi:10.1038/81563
  3. Janssens K, ten Dijke P, Ralston SH, Bergmann C, Van Hul W. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 mutations in Camurati-Engelmann disease lead to increased signaling by altering either activation or secretion of the mutant protein. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 28;278(9):7718-24. Epub 2002 Dec 18. PMID:12493741 doi:10.1074/jbc.M208857200
  4. McGowan NW, MacPherson H, Janssens K, Van Hul W, Frith JC, Fraser WD, Ralston SH, Helfrich MH. A mutation affecting the latency-associated peptide of TGFbeta1 in Camurati-Engelmann disease enhances osteoclast formation in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul;88(7):3321-6. PMID:12843182
  5. Kinoshita A, Fukumaki Y, Shirahama S, Miyahara A, Nishimura G, Haga N, Namba A, Ueda H, Hayashi H, Ikegawa S, Seidel J, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K. TGFB1 mutations in four new families with Camurati-Engelmann disease: confirmation of independently arising LAP-domain-specific mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 May 15;127A(1):104-7. PMID:15103729 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.20671

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