Crystal structure of the chicken actin trimer complexed with human gelsolin segment 1 (GS-1)
[GELS_HUMAN] Defects in GSN are the cause of amyloidosis type 5 (AMYL5) [MIM:105120]; also known as familial amyloidosis Finnish type. AMYL5 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to gelsolin amyloid deposition. It is typically characterized by cranial neuropathy and lattice corneal dystrophy. Most patients have modest involvement of internal organs, but severe systemic disease can develop in some individuals causing peripheral polyneuropathy, amyloid cardiomyopathy, and nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure.   
[GELS_HUMAN] Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembly of monomers into filaments (nucleation) as well as sever filaments already formed. Plays a role in ciliogenesis. [ACTS_CHICK] Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Stable oligomers of filamentous actin were obtained by cross-linking F-actin with 1,4-N,N'-phenylenedimaleimide and depolymerization with excess segment-1 of gelsolin. Segment-1-bound and cross-linked actin oligomers containing either two or three actin subunits were purified and shown to nucleate actin assembly. Kinetic assembly data from mixtures of monomeric actin and the actin oligomers fit a nucleation model where cross-linked actin dimer or trimer reacts with an actin monomer to produce a competent nucleus for filament assembly. We report the three-dimensional structure of the segment-1-actin hexamer containing three actin subunits, each with a tightly bound ATP. Comparative analysis of this structure with twelve other actin structures provides an atomic level explanation for the preferential binding of ATP by the segment-1-complexed actin. Although the structure of segment-1-bound actin trimer is topologically similar to the helical model of F-actin (1), it has a distorted symmetry compared with that of the helical model. This distortion results from intercalation of segment-1 between actin protomers that increase the rise per subunit and rotate each of the actin subunits relative to their positions in F-actin. We also show that segment-1 of gelsolin is able to sever actin filaments, although the severing activity of segment-1 is significantly lower than full-length gelsolin.
Structure of an F-actin trimer disrupted by gelsolin and implications for the mechanism of severing.,Dawson JF, Sablin EP, Spudich JA, Fletterick RJ J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 10;278(2):1229-38. Epub 2002 Sep 27. PMID:12356759
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.