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1mhj

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1mhj, 20 NMR models ()
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE SUPERACTIVE MONOMERIC DES-[PHE(B25)] HUMAN INSULIN MUTANT. ELUCIDATION OF THE STRUCTURAL BASIS FOR THE MONOMERIZATION OF THE DES-[PHE(B25)] INSULIN AND THE DIMERIZATION OF NATIVE INSULIN

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The three-dimensional solution structure of des-[Phe(B25)] human insulin has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. Thirty-five structures were calculated by distance geometry from 581 nuclear Overhauser enhancement-derived distance constraints, ten phi torsional angle restraints, the restraints from 16 helical hydrogen bonds, and three disulfide bridges. The distance geometry structures were optimized using simulated annealing and restrained energy minimization. The average root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviation for the best 20 refined structures is 1.07 angstroms for the backbone and 1.92 angstroms for all atoms if the less well-defined N and C-terminal residues are excluded. The helical regions are more well defined, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.64 angstroms for the backbone and 1.51 angstroms for all atoms. It is found that the des-[Phe(B25)] insulin is a monomer under the applied conditions (4.6 to 4.7 mM, pH 3.0, 310 K), that the overall secondary and tertiary structures of the monomers in the 2Zn crystal hexamer of native insulin are preserved, and that the conformation-averaged NMR solution structure is close to the structure of molecule 1 in the hexamer. The structure reveals that the lost ability of des-[Phe(B25)] insulin to self-associate is caused by a conformational change of the C-terminal region of the B-chain, which results in an intra-molecular hydrophobic interaction between Pro(B28) and the hydrophobic region Leu(B11)-Leu(B15) of the B-chain alpha-helix. This interaction interferes with the inter-molecular hydrophobic interactions responsible for the dimerization of native insulin, depriving the mutant of the ability to dimerize. Further, the structure displays a series of features that may explain the high potency of the mutant on the basis of the current model for the insulin-receptor interaction. These features are: a change in conformation of the C-terminal region of the B-chain, the absence of strong hydrogen bonds between this region and the rest of the molecule, and a relatively easy accessibility to the Val(A3) residue.

Solution structure of the superactive monomeric des-[Phe(B25)] human insulin mutant: elucidation of the structural basis for the monomerization of des-[Phe(B25)] insulin and the dimerization of native insulin., Jorgensen AM, Olsen HB, Balschmidt P, Led JJ, J Mol Biol. 1996 Apr 5;257(3):684-99. PMID:8648633

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].[1][2][3][4] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.[5] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.[6][7] Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.[8][9][10]

Function

[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

About this Structure

1mhj is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full experimental information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Jorgensen AM, Olsen HB, Balschmidt P, Led JJ. Solution structure of the superactive monomeric des-[Phe(B25)] human insulin mutant: elucidation of the structural basis for the monomerization of des-[Phe(B25)] insulin and the dimerization of native insulin. J Mol Biol. 1996 Apr 5;257(3):684-99. PMID:8648633 doi:S0022-2836(96)90194-1
  1. Chan SJ, Seino S, Gruppuso PA, Schwartz R, Steiner DF. A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2194-7. PMID:3470784
  2. Barbetti F, Raben N, Kadowaki T, Cama A, Accili D, Gabbay KH, Merenich JA, Taylor SI, Roth J. Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jul;71(1):164-9. PMID:2196279
  3. Shibasaki Y, Kawakami T, Kanazawa Y, Akanuma Y, Takaku F. Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):378-80. PMID:4019786 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI111973
  4. Yano H, Kitano N, Morimoto M, Polonsky KS, Imura H, Seino Y. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto). J Clin Invest. 1992 Jun;89(6):1902-7. PMID:1601997 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI115795
  5. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  6. Stoy J, Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Ye H, Paz VP, Pluzhnikov A, Below JE, Hayes MG, Cox NJ, Lipkind GM, Lipton RB, Greeley SA, Patch AM, Ellard S, Steiner DF, Hattersley AT, Philipson LH, Bell GI. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12. PMID:17855560 doi:10.1073/pnas.0707291104
  7. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  8. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  9. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  10. Boesgaard TW, Pruhova S, Andersson EA, Cinek O, Obermannova B, Lauenborg J, Damm P, Bergholdt R, Pociot F, Pisinger C, Barbetti F, Lebl J, Pedersen O, Hansen T. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). BMC Med Genet. 2010 Mar 12;11:42. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-42. PMID:20226046 doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-42

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