SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE SUPERACTIVE MONOMERIC DES-[PHE(B25)] HUMAN INSULIN MUTANT. ELUCIDATION OF THE STRUCTURAL BASIS FOR THE MONOMERIZATION OF THE DES-[PHE(B25)] INSULIN AND THE DIMERIZATION OF NATIVE INSULIN
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The three-dimensional solution structure of des-[Phe(B25)] human insulin has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. Thirty-five structures were calculated by distance geometry from 581 nuclear Overhauser enhancement-derived distance constraints, ten phi torsional angle restraints, the restraints from 16 helical hydrogen bonds, and three disulfide bridges. The distance geometry structures were optimized using simulated annealing and restrained energy minimization. The average root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviation for the best 20 refined structures is 1.07 angstroms for the backbone and 1.92 angstroms for all atoms if the less well-defined N and C-terminal residues are excluded. The helical regions are more well defined, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.64 angstroms for the backbone and 1.51 angstroms for all atoms. It is found that the des-[Phe(B25)] insulin is a monomer under the applied conditions (4.6 to 4.7 mM, pH 3.0, 310 K), that the overall secondary and tertiary structures of the monomers in the 2Zn crystal hexamer of native insulin are preserved, and that the conformation-averaged NMR solution structure is close to the structure of molecule 1 in the hexamer. The structure reveals that the lost ability of des-[Phe(B25)] insulin to self-associate is caused by a conformational change of the C-terminal region of the B-chain, which results in an intra-molecular hydrophobic interaction between Pro(B28) and the hydrophobic region Leu(B11)-Leu(B15) of the B-chain alpha-helix. This interaction interferes with the inter-molecular hydrophobic interactions responsible for the dimerization of native insulin, depriving the mutant of the ability to dimerize. Further, the structure displays a series of features that may explain the high potency of the mutant on the basis of the current model for the insulin-receptor interaction. These features are: a change in conformation of the C-terminal region of the B-chain, the absence of strong hydrogen bonds between this region and the rest of the molecule, and a relatively easy accessibility to the Val(A3) residue.
Solution structure of the superactive monomeric des-[Phe(B25)] human insulin mutant: elucidation of the structural basis for the monomerization of des-[Phe(B25)] insulin and the dimerization of native insulin.,Jorgensen AM, Olsen HB, Balschmidt P, Led JJ J Mol Biol. 1996 Apr 5;257(3):684-99. PMID:8648633
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.