Solution Structure of the SWI1 ARID
[ARI1A_HUMAN] Defects in ARID1A are the cause of mental retardation autosomal dominant type 14 (MRD14) [MIM:614607]. A disease characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. Mental retardation is defined by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptative behavior and manifested during the developmental period. MRD14 patients manifest developmental delay, abnormal corpus callosum, absent/hypoplastic fifth finger/toenails, sparse scalp hair, long eyelashes, and a coarse facial appearance with wide mouth, thick lips, and abnormal ears.
[ARI1A_HUMAN] Involved in transcriptional activation and repression of select genes by chromatin remodeling (alteration of DNA-nucleosome topology). Binds DNA non-specifically. Also involved in vitamin D-coupled transcription regulation via its association with the WINAC complex, a chromatin-remodeling complex recruited by vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is required for the ligand-bound VDR-mediated transrepression of the CYP27B1 gene. Belongs to the neural progenitors-specific chromatin remodeling complex (npBAF complex) and the neuron-specific chromatin remodeling complex (nBAF complex). During neural development a switch from a stem/progenitor to a post-mitotic chromatin remodeling mechanism occurs as neurons exit the cell cycle and become committed to their adult state. The transition from proliferating neural stem/progenitor cells to post-mitotic neurons requires a switch in subunit composition of the npBAF and nBAF complexes. As neural progenitors exit mitosis and differentiate into neurons, npBAF complexes which contain ACTL6A/BAF53A and PHF10/BAF45A, are exchanged for homologous alternative ACTL6B/BAF53B and DPF1/BAF45B or DPF3/BAF45C subunits in neuron-specific complexes (nBAF). The npBAF complex is essential for the self-renewal/proliferative capacity of the multipotent neural stem cells. The nBAF complex along with CREST plays a role regulating the activity of genes essential for dendrite growth (By similarity).
Publication Abstract from PubMed
ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) is a homologous family of DNA-binding domains that occur in DNA-binding proteins from a wide variety of species, ranging from yeast to nematodes, insects, mammals, and plants. SWI1, a member of the SWI/SNF protein complex that is involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription, contains the ARID motif. The ARID domain of human SWI1 (also known as p270) does not select for a specific DNA sequence from a random sequence pool. The lack of sequence specificity shown by the SWI1 ARID domain stands in contrast to the other characterized ARID domains, which recognize specific AT-rich sequences. We have solved the three-dimensional structure of human SWI1 ARID using solution NMR methods. In addition, we have characterized nonspecific DNA binding by the SWI1 ARID domain. Results from this study indicate that a flexible, long, internal loop in the ARID motif is likely to be important for sequence-specific DNA recognition. The structure of the human SWI1 ARID domain also represents a distinct structural subfamily. Studies of ARID indicate that the boundary of DNA binding structural and functional domains can extend beyond the sequence homologous region in a homologous family of proteins. Structural studies of homologous domains such as the ARID family of DNA-binding domains should provide information to better predict the boundary of structural and functional domains in structural genomic studies.
Structure and DNA-binding sites of the SWI1 AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) suggest determinants for sequence-specific DNA recognition.,Kim S, Zhang Z, Upchurch S, Isern N, Chen Y J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 16;279(16):16670-6. Epub 2004 Jan 13. PMID:14722072
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.