MINI-PROINSULIN, TWO CHAIN INSULIN ANALOG MUTANT: DES B30, HIS(B 10)ASP, PRO(B 28)ASP, NMR, 20 STRUCTURES
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Protein minimization highlights essential determinants of structure and function. Minimal models of proinsulin and insulin-like growth factor I contain homologous A and B domains as single-chain analogues. Such models (designated mini-proinsulin and mini-IGF-I) have attracted wide interest due to their native foldability but complete absence of biological activity. The crystal structure of mini-proinsulin, determined as a T3R3 hexamer, is similar to that of the native insulin hexamer. Here, we describe the solution structure of a monomeric mini-proinsulin under physiologic conditions and compare this structure to that of the corresponding two-chain analogue. The two proteins each contain substitutions in the B-chain (HisB10-->Asp and ProB28-->Asp) designed to destabilize self-association by electrostatic repulsion; the proteins differ by the presence or absence of a peptide bond between LysB29 and GlyA1. The structures are essentially identical, resembling in each case the T-state crystallographic protomer. Differences are observed near the site of cross-linking: the adjoining A1-A8 alpha-helix (variable among crystal structures) is less well-ordered in mini-proinsulin than in the two-chain variant. The single-chain analogue is not completely inactive: its affinity for the insulin receptor is 1500-fold lower than that of the two-chain analogue. Moreover, at saturating concentrations mini-proinsulin retains the ability to stimulate lipogenesis in adipocytes (native biological potency). These results suggest that a change in the conformation of insulin, as tethered by the B29-A1 peptide bond, optimizes affinity but is not integral to the mechanism of transmembrane signaling. Surprisingly, the tertiary structure of mini-proinsulin differs from that of mini-IGF-I (main-chain rms deviation 4.5 A) despite strict conservation of non-polar residues in their respective hydrophobic cores (side-chain rms deviation 4.9 A). Three-dimensional profile scores suggest that the two structures each provide acceptable templates for threading of insulin-like sequences. Mini-proinsulin and mini-IGF-I thus provide examples of homologous protein sequences encoding non-homologous structures.
Mini-proinsulin and mini-IGF-I: homologous protein sequences encoding non-homologous structures.,Hua QX, Hu SQ, Jia W, Chu YC, Burke GT, Wang SH, Wang RY, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA J Mol Biol. 1998 Mar 20;277(1):103-18. PMID:9514738
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.