Solution Structure of Human Proinsulin C-Peptide
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The C-peptide of proinsulin is important for the biosynthesis of insulin, but has been considered for a long time to be biologically inert. Recent studies in diabetic patients have stimulated a new debate about its possible regulatory role, suggesting that it is a hormonally active peptide. We describe structural studies of the C-peptide using 2D NMR spectroscopy. In aqueous solution, the NOE patterns and chemical shifts indicate that the ensemble is a nonrandom structure and contains substructures with defined local conformations. These are more clearly visible in 50% H2O/50% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. The N-terminal region (residues 2-5) forms a type I beta-turn, whereas the C-terminal region (residues 27-31) presents the most well-defined structure of the whole molecule including a type III'beta-turn. The C-terminal pentapeptide (EGSLQ) has been suggested to be responsible for chiral interactions with an as yet uncharacterized, probably a G-protein-coupled, receptor. The three central regions of the molecule (residues 9-12, 15-18 and 22-25) show tendencies to form beta-bends. We propose that the structure described here for the C-terminal pentapeptide is consistent with the previously postulated CA knuckle, believed to represent the active site of the C-peptide of human proinsulin.
Solution structure of human proinsulin C-peptide.,Munte CE, Vilela L, Kalbitzer HR, Garratt RC FEBS J. 2005 Aug;272(16):4284-93. PMID:16098208
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.