NMR STRUCTURE OF HUMAN INSULIN MUTANT HIS-B10-ASP, VAL-B12-ABA, PRO-B28-LYS, LYS-B29-PRO, 15 STRUCTURES
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor plays a central role in the hormonal control of metabolism. Here, we investigate possible contact sites between the receptor and the conserved non-polar surface of the B-chain. Evidence is presented that two contiguous sites in an alpha-helix, Val(B12) and Tyr(B16), contact the receptor. Chemical synthesis is exploited to obtain non-standard substitutions in an engineered monomer (DKP-insulin). Substitution of Tyr(B16) by an isosteric photo-activatable derivative (para-azido-phenylalanine) enables efficient cross-linking to the receptor. Such cross-linking is specific and maps to the L1 beta-helix of the alpha-subunit. Because substitution of Val(B12) by larger side-chains markedly impairs receptor binding, cross-linking studies at B12 were not undertaken. Structure-function relationships are instead probed by side-chains of similar or smaller volume: respective substitution of Val(B12) by alanine, threonine, and alpha-aminobutyric acid leads to activities of 1(+/-0.1)%, 13(+/-6)%, and 14(+/-5)% (relative to DKP-insulin) without disproportionate changes in negative cooperativity. NMR structures are essentially identical with native insulin. The absence of transmitted structural changes suggests that the low activities of B12 analogues reflect local perturbation of a "high-affinity" hormone-receptor contact. By contrast, because position B16 tolerates alanine substitution (relative activity 34(+/-10)%), the contribution of this neighboring interaction is smaller. Together, our results support a model in which the B-chain alpha-helix, functioning as an essential recognition element, docks against the L1 beta-helix of the insulin receptor.
How insulin binds: the B-chain alpha-helix contacts the L1 beta-helix of the insulin receptor.,Huang K, Xu B, Hu SQ, Chu YC, Hua QX, Qu Y, Li B, Wang S, Wang RY, Nakagawa SH, Theede AM, Whittaker J, De Meyts P, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA J Mol Biol. 2004 Aug 6;341(2):529-50. PMID:15276842
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.