[GP1BA_HUMAN] Genetic variations in GP1BA may be a cause of susceptibility to non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) [MIM:258660]. NAION is an ocular disease due to ischemic injury to the optic nerve. It usually affects the optic disk and leads to visual loss and optic disk swelling of a pallid nature. Visual loss is usually sudden, or over a few days at most and is usually permanent, with some recovery possibly occurring within the first weeks or months. Patients with small disks having smaller or non-existent cups have an anatomical predisposition for non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. As an ischemic episode evolves, the swelling compromises circulation, with a spiral of ischemia resulting in further neuronal damage. Defects in GP1BA are a cause of Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) [MIM:231200]; also known as giant platelet disease (GPD). BSS patients have unusually large platelets and have a clinical bleeding tendency. Defects in GP1BA are the cause of benign mediterranean macrothrombocytopenia (BMM) [MIM:153670]; also known as autosomal dominant benign Bernard-Soulier syndrome. BMM is characterized by mild or no clinical symptoms, normal platelet function, and normal megakaryocyte count. Defects in GP1BA are the cause of pseudo-von Willebrand disease (VWDP) [MIM:177820]. A bleeding disorder is caused by an increased affinity of GP-Ib for soluble vWF resulting in impaired hemostatic function due to the removal of vWF from the circulation. [VWF_HUMAN] Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) [MIM:193400]. A common hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 1 is characterized by partial quantitative deficiency of circulating von Willebrand factor, that is otherwise structurally and functionally normal. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 2 (VWD2) [MIM:613554]. A hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 2 is characterized by qualitative deficiency and functional anomalies of von Willebrand factor. It is divided in different subtypes including 2A, 2B, 2M and 2N (Normandy variant). The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in type 2N is defective in its ability to bind factor VIII. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) [MIM:277480]. A severe hemorrhagic disorder due to a total or near total absence of von Willebrand factor in the plasma and cellular compartments, also leading to a profound deficiency of plasmatic factor VIII. Bleeding usually starts in infancy and can include epistaxis, recurrent mucocutaneous bleeding, excessive bleeding after minor trauma, and hemarthroses.
[GP1BA_HUMAN] GP-Ib, a surface membrane protein of platelets, participates in the formation of platelet plugs by binding to the A1 domain of vWF, which is already bound to the subendothelium. [VWF_HUMAN] Important in the maintenance of hemostasis, it promotes adhesion of platelets to the sites of vascular injury by forming a molecular bridge between sub-endothelial collagen matrix and platelet-surface receptor complex GPIb-IX-V. Also acts as a chaperone for coagulation factor VIII, delivering it to the site of injury, stabilizing its heterodimeric structure and protecting it from premature clearance from plasma. [LECBB_BOTJA] Snaclec that activates platelets by targeting vWF/GPIb. Two-chain botrocetin forms an activated complex with vWF (by binding the A1 domain), and the complex then binds to platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha (GP1BA), resulting in platelet aggregation. There are two distinct forms of the von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet coagglutinin. The dimeric form is 34-times more active than the one-chain botrocetin in promoting vWF binding to platelets. [LECBA_BOTJA] Snaclec that activates platelets by targeting vWF/GPIb. Two-chain botrocetin forms an activated complex with vWF (by binding the A1 domain), and the complex then binds to platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha (GP1BA), resulting in platelet aggregation. There are two distinct forms of the von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet coagglutinin. The dimeric form is 34-times more active than the one-chain botrocetin in promoting vWF binding to platelets.
Botrocetin is a snake venom protein that enhances the affinity of the A1 domain of plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) for the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha), an event that contributes to bleeding and host death. Here we describe a kinetic and crystallographic analysis of this interaction that reveals a novel mechanism of affinity enhancement. Using high-temporal-resolution microscopy, we show that botrocetin decreases the GPIbalpha off-rate two-fold in both human and mouse complexes without affecting the on-rate. The key to this behavior is that, upon binding of GPIbalpha to vWF-A1, botrocetin prebound to vWF-A1 makes no contacts initially with GPIbalpha, but subsequently slides around the A1 surface to form a new interface. This two-step mechanism and flexible coupling may prevent adverse alterations in on-rate of GPIbalpha for vWF-A1, and permit adaptation to structural differences in GPIbalpha and vWF in several prey species.
The snake venom protein botrocetin acts as a biological brace to promote dysfunctional platelet aggregation.,Fukuda K, Doggett T, Laurenzi IJ, Liddington RC, Diacovo TG Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005 Feb;12(2):152-9. Epub 2005 Jan 16. PMID:15665869
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Fukuda K, Doggett T, Laurenzi IJ, Liddington RC, Diacovo TG. The snake venom protein botrocetin acts as a biological brace to promote dysfunctional platelet aggregation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005 Feb;12(2):152-9. Epub 2005 Jan 16. PMID:15665869 doi:10.1038/nsmb892