HUMAN INSULIN TWO DISULFIDE MODEL, NMR, 10 STRUCTURES
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Functional surfaces of a protein are often mapped by combination of X-ray crystallography and mutagenesis. Such studies of insulin have yielded paradoxical results, suggesting that the native state is inactive and reorganizes on receptor binding. Of particular interest is the N-terminal alpha-helix of the A-chain. Does this segment function as an alpha-helix or reorganize as recently proposed in a prohormone-convertase complex? To correlate structure and function, we describe a mapping strategy based on protein design. The solution structure of an engineered monomer ([AspB10, LysB28, ProB29]-human insulin) is determined at neutral pH as a template for synthesis of a novel A-chain analogue. Designed by analogy to a protein-folding intermediate, the analogue lacks the A6-A11 disulphide bridge; the cysteine residues are replaced by serine. Its solution structure is remarkable for segmental unfolding of the N-terminal A-chain alpha-helix (A1 to A8) in an otherwise native subdomain. The structure demonstrates that the overall orientation of the A and B chains is consistent with reorganization of the A-chain's N-terminal segment. Nevertheless, the analogue's low biological activity suggests that this segment, a site of clinical mutation causing diabetes mellitus, functions as a preformed recognition alpha-helix.
Mapping the functional surface of insulin by design: structure and function of a novel A-chain analogue.,Hua QX, Hu SQ, Frank BH, Jia W, Chu YC, Wang SH, Burke GT, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA J Mol Biol. 1996 Nov 29;264(2):390-403. PMID:8951384
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.