[ALBU_HUMAN] Defects in ALB are a cause of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) [MIM:103600]. FDH is a form of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia that is due to increased affinity of ALB for T(4). It is the most common cause of inherited euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian population.
[ALBU_HUMAN] Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is unique amongst antibodies in being able to form polymeric structures that may possess important functions in the pathology of specific diseases. IgA also forms complexes with other plasma proteins, the IgA1-human serum albumin (HSA) complex (IgA1-HSA) being typical. We have purified this complex using a novel two-step purification based on thiophilic chromatography and gel filtration, and characterised this. HSA is linked covalently to the tailpiece of IgA1 by a disulphide bond between Cys471 in IgA1 and Cys34 in HSA. IgA1-HSA binds to IgA receptors on neutrophils and monocytes, and elicits a respiratory burst that is comparable in magnitude to that of monomeric IgA1. The solution arrangement of IgA1-HSA was identified by X-ray scattering and ultracentrifugation. The radius of gyration R(G) of 7.5(+/-0.3) nm showed that IgA1-HSA is more extended in solution than IgA1 (R(G) of 6.1-6.2 nm). Its distance distribution function P(r) showed two peaks that indicated a well-separated solution structure similar to that for IgA1, and a maximum dimension of 25 nm, which is greater than that of 21 nm for IgA1. Sedimentation equilibrium showed that the IgA1:HSA stoichiometry is 1:1. Sedimentation velocity resulted in a sedimentation coefficient of 6.4S and a frictional ratio of 1.87, which is greater than that of 1.56 for IgA1. The constrained modelling of the IgA1-HSA structure using known structures for IgA1 and HSA generated 2432 conformationally randomised models of which 52 gave good scattering fits. The HSA structure was located at the base of the Fc fragment in IgA1 in an extended arrangement. Such a structure accounts for the functional activity of IgA1-HSA, and supports our previous modelling analysis of the IgA1 solution structure. The IgA1-HSA complex may suggest the potential for creating a new class of targeted therapeutic reagents based on the coupling of IgA1 to carrier proteins.
Purification, properties and extended solution structure of the complex formed between human immunoglobulin A1 and human serum albumin by scattering and ultracentrifugation.,Almogren A, Furtado PB, Sun Z, Perkins SJ, Kerr MA J Mol Biol. 2006 Feb 17;356(2):413-31. Epub 2005 Dec 7. PMID:16376934
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Rushbrook JI, Becker E, Schussler GC, Divino CM. Identification of a human serum albumin species associated with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Feb;80(2):461-7. PMID:7852505
↑ Wada N, Chiba H, Shimizu C, Kijima H, Kubo M, Koike T. A novel missense mutation in codon 218 of the albumin gene in a distinct phenotype of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in a Japanese kindred. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3246-50. PMID:9329347
↑ Lu J, Stewart AJ, Sadler PJ, Pinheiro TJ, Blindauer CA. Albumin as a zinc carrier: properties of its high-affinity zinc-binding site. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1317-21. doi: 10.1042/BST0361317. PMID:19021548 doi:10.1042/BST0361317
↑ Almogren A, Furtado PB, Sun Z, Perkins SJ, Kerr MA. Purification, properties and extended solution structure of the complex formed between human immunoglobulin A1 and human serum albumin by scattering and ultracentrifugation. J Mol Biol. 2006 Feb 17;356(2):413-31. Epub 2005 Dec 7. PMID:16376934 doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.11.060