NMR STRUCTURE OF HUMAN INSULIN IN 20% ACETIC ACID, ZINC-FREE, 10 STRUCTURES
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We have determined the structure of a metastable disulphide isomer of human insulin. Although not observed for proinsulin folding or insulin-chain recombination, the isomer retains ordered secondary structure and a compact hydrophobic core. Comparison with native insulin reveals a global rearrangement in the orientation of A- and B-chains. One face of the protein's surface is nevertheless in common between native and non-native structures. This face contains receptor-binding determinants, rationalizing the partial biological activity of the isomer. Structures of native and non-native disulphide isomers also define alternative three-dimensional templates. Threading of insulin-like sequences provide an experimental realization of the inverse protein-folding problem.
Structure of a protein in a kinetic trap.,Hua QX, Gozani SN, Chance RE, Hoffmann JA, Frank BH, Weiss MA Nat Struct Biol. 1995 Feb;2(2):129-38. PMID:7749917
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.