Solution structure of presenilin-1 CTF subunit
[PSN1_HUMAN] Defects in PSEN1 are a cause of Alzheimer disease type 3 (AD3) [MIM:607822]. AD3 is a familial early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituent of these plaques is the neurotoxic amyloid-beta-APP 40-42 peptide (s), derived proteolytically from the transmembrane precursor protein APP by sequential secretase processing. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products such as C31 derived from APP, are also implicated in neuronal death.                           [:]     Defects in PSEN1 are a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) [MIM:600274]. Defects in PSEN1 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1U (CMD1U) [MIM:613694]. It is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. Defects in PSEN1 are the cause of familial acne inversa type 3 (ACNINV3) [MIM:613737]. A chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of the hair follicles characterized by recurrent draining sinuses, painful skin abscesses, and disfiguring scars. Manifestations typically appear after puberty.
[PSN1_HUMAN] Probable catalytic subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, an endoprotease complex that catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and APP (beta-amyloid precursor protein). Requires the other members of the gamma-secretase complex to have a protease activity. May play a role in intracellular signaling and gene expression or in linking chromatin to the nuclear membrane. Stimulates cell-cell adhesion though its association with the E-cadherin/catenin complex. Under conditions of apoptosis or calcium influx, cleaves E-cadherin promoting the disassembly of the E-cadherin/catenin complex and increasing the pool of cytoplasmic beta-catenin, thus negatively regulating Wnt signaling. May also play a role in hematopoiesis.