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2ld1, 34 NMR models ()
Gene: ATRX, RAD54L, XH2 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: DNA helicase, with EC number
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Structures and chemical shift assignments for the ADD domain of the ATRX protein

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The chromatin-associated protein ATRX was originally identified because mutations in the ATRX gene cause a severe form of syndromal X-linked mental retardation associated with alpha-thalassemia. Half of all of the disease-associated missense mutations cluster in a cysteine-rich region in the N terminus of ATRX. This region was named the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain, based on sequence homology with a family of DNA methyltransferases. Here, we report the solution structure of the ADD domain of ATRX, which consists of an N-terminal GATA-like zinc finger, a plant homeodomain finger, and a long C-terminal alpha-helix that pack together to form a single globular domain. Interestingly, the alpha-helix of the GATA-like finger is exposed and highly basic, suggesting a DNA-binding function for ATRX. The disease-causing mutations fall into two groups: the majority affect buried residues and hence affect the structural integrity of the ADD domain; another group affects a cluster of surface residues, and these are likely to perturb a potential protein interaction site. The effects of individual point mutations on the folding state and stability of the ADD domain correlate well with the levels of mutant ATRX protein in patients, providing insights into the molecular pathophysiology of ATR-X syndrome.

Structural consequences of disease-causing mutations in the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of the chromatin-associated protein ATRX., Argentaro A, Yang JC, Chapman L, Kowalczyk MS, Gibbons RJ, Higgs DR, Neuhaus D, Rhodes D, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17;104(29):11939-44. Epub 2007 Jul 3. PMID:17609377

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[ATRX_HUMAN] Defects in ATRX are the cause of alpha-thalassemia mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) [MIM:301040]. ATR-X is an X-linked disorder comprising severe psychomotor retardation, facial dysmorphism, urogenital abnormalities, and alpha-thalassemia. An essential phenotypic trait are hemoglobin H erythrocyte inclusions.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Defects in ATRX are the cause of mental retardation syndromic X-linked with hypotonic facies syndrome type 1 (MRXSHF1) [MIM:309580]; also called Carpenter-Waziri syndrome (CWS), Juberg-Marsidi syndrome (JMS), Smith-Fineman-Myers syndrome type 1 (SFM1). Clinical features include severe mental retardation, dysmorphic facies, and a highly skewed X-inactivation pattern in carrier women. Other more variable features include hypogonadism, deafness, renal anomalies, and mild skeletal defects.[11][12][13][14][15][16] Defects in ATRX are a cause of alpha-thalassemia myelodysplasia syndrome (ATMDS) [MIM:300448]. In this disorder, alpha-thalassemia occurs as an acquired abnormality in association with a multilineage myelodysplasia.[17]


[ATRX_HUMAN] Could be a global transcriptional regulator. Modifies gene expression by affecting chromatin. May be involved in brain development and facial morphogenesis.

About this Structure

2ld1 is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full experimental information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Argentaro A, Yang JC, Chapman L, Kowalczyk MS, Gibbons RJ, Higgs DR, Neuhaus D, Rhodes D. Structural consequences of disease-causing mutations in the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of the chromatin-associated protein ATRX. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17;104(29):11939-44. Epub 2007 Jul 3. PMID:17609377
  1. Picketts DJ, Higgs DR, Bachoo S, Blake DJ, Quarrell OW, Gibbons RJ. ATRX encodes a novel member of the SNF2 family of proteins: mutations point to a common mechanism underlying the ATR-X syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Dec;5(12):1899-907. PMID:8968741
  2. Gibbons RJ, Picketts DJ, Villard L, Higgs DR. Mutations in a putative global transcriptional regulator cause X-linked mental retardation with alpha-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Cell. 1995 Mar 24;80(6):837-45. PMID:7697714
  3. Villard L, Lacombe D, Fontes M. A point mutation in the XNP gene, associated with an ATR-X phenotype without alpha-thalassemia. Eur J Hum Genet. 1996;4(6):316-20. PMID:9043863
  4. Gibbons RJ, Bachoo S, Picketts DJ, Aftimos S, Asenbauer B, Bergoffen J, Berry SA, Dahl N, Fryer A, Keppler K, Kurosawa K, Levin ML, Masuno M, Neri G, Pierpont ME, Slaney SF, Higgs DR. Mutations in transcriptional regulator ATRX establish the functional significance of a PHD-like domain. Nat Genet. 1997 Oct;17(2):146-8. PMID:9326931 doi:10.1038/ng1097-146
  5. Fichera M, Romano C, Castiglia L, Failla P, Ruberto C, Amata S, Greco D, Cardoso C, Fontes M, Ragusa A. New mutations in XNP/ATR-X gene: a further contribution to genotype/phenotype relationship in ATR/X syndrome. Mutations in brief no. 176. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(3):214. PMID:10660327
  6. Lossi AM, Millan JM, Villard L, Orellana C, Cardoso C, Prieto F, Fontes M, Martinez F. Mutation of the XNP/ATR-X gene in a family with severe mental retardation, spastic paraplegia and skewed pattern of X inactivation: demonstration that the mutation is involved in the inactivation bias. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Aug;65(2):558-62. PMID:10417298 doi:10.1086/302499
  7. Villard L, Bonino MC, Abidi F, Ragusa A, Belougne J, Lossi AM, Seaver L, Bonnefont JP, Romano C, Fichera M, Lacombe D, Hanauer A, Philip N, Schwartz C, Fontes M. Evaluation of a mutation screening strategy for sporadic cases of ATR-X syndrome. J Med Genet. 1999 Mar;36(3):183-6. PMID:10204841
  8. Wada T, Kubota T, Fukushima Y, Saitoh S. Molecular genetic study of japanese patients with X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Am J Med Genet. 2000 Sep 18;94(3):242-8. PMID:10995512
  9. Yntema HG, Poppelaars FA, Derksen E, Oudakker AR, van Roosmalen T, Jacobs A, Obbema H, Brunner HG, Hamel BC, van Bokhoven H. Expanding phenotype of XNP mutations: mild to moderate mental retardation. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Jul 1;110(3):243-7. PMID:12116232 doi:10.1002/ajmg.10446
  10. Badens C, Martini N, Courrier S, DesPortes V, Touraine R, Levy N, Edery P. ATRX syndrome in a girl with a heterozygous mutation in the ATRX Zn finger domain and a totally skewed X-inactivation pattern. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Oct 15;140(20):2212-5. PMID:16955409 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31400
  11. Villard L, Fontes M, Ades LC, Gecz J. Identification of a mutation in the XNP/ATR-X gene in a family reported as Smith-Fineman-Myers syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Mar 6;91(1):83-5. PMID:10751095
  12. Villard L, Gecz J, Mattei JF, Fontes M, Saugier-Veber P, Munnich A, Lyonnet S. XNP mutation in a large family with Juberg-Marsidi syndrome. Nat Genet. 1996 Apr;12(4):359-60. PMID:8630485 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng0496-359
  13. Abidi F, Schwartz CE, Carpenter NJ, Villard L, Fontes M, Curtis M. Carpenter-Waziri syndrome results from a mutation in XNP. Am J Med Genet. 1999 Jul 30;85(3):249-51. PMID:10398237
  14. Stevenson RE, Abidi F, Schwartz CE, Lubs HA, Holmes LB. Holmes-Gang syndrome is allelic with XLMR-hypotonic face syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Oct 23;94(5):383-5. PMID:11050622
  15. Leahy RT, Philip RK, Gibbons RJ, Fisher C, Suri M, Reardon W. Asplenia in ATR-X syndrome: a second report. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Nov 15;139(1):37-9. PMID:16222662 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30990
  16. Wieland I, Sabathil J, Ostendorf A, Rittinger O, Ropke A, Winnepenninckx B, Kooy F, Holinski-Feder E, Wieacker P. A missense mutation in the coiled-coil motif of the HP1-interacting domain of ATR-X in a family with X-linked mental retardation. Neurogenetics. 2005 Feb;6(1):45-7. PMID:15565397 doi:10.1007/s10048-004-0190-3
  17. Gibbons RJ, Pellagatti A, Garrick D, Wood WG, Malik N, Ayyub H, Langford C, Boultwood J, Wainscoat JS, Higgs DR. Identification of acquired somatic mutations in the gene encoding chromatin-remodeling factor ATRX in the alpha-thalassemia myelodysplasia syndrome (ATMDS). Nat Genet. 2003 Aug;34(4):446-9. PMID:12858175 doi:10.1038/ng1213

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