Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex
[VPS35_HUMAN] Defects in VPS35 are the cause of Parkinson disease type 17 (PARK17) [MIM:614203]. PARK17 is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset form of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability, as well as by a clinically significant response to treatment with levodopa. The pathology involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain.  
[VPS29_HUMAN] Essential component of the retromer complex, a complex required to retrieve lysosomal enzyme receptors (IGF2R and M6PR) from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Also required to regulate transcytosis of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-pIgA). Has low protein phosphatase activity towards a serine-phosphorylated peptide derived from IGF2R (in vitro). [VPS35_HUMAN] Essential component of the retromer complex, a complex required to retrieve lysosomal enzyme receptors (IGF2R and M6PR) from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Also required to regulate transcytosis of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-pIgA).
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The retromer complex is required for the sorting of acid hydrolases to lysosomes, transcytosis of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, Wnt gradient formation, iron transporter recycling and processing of the amyloid precursor protein. Human retromer consists of two smaller complexes: the cargo recognition VPS26-VPS29-VPS35 heterotrimer and a membrane-targeting heterodimer or homodimer of SNX1 and/or SNX2 (ref. 13). Here we report the crystal structure of a VPS29-VPS35 subcomplex showing how the metallophosphoesterase-fold subunit VPS29 (refs 14, 15) acts as a scaffold for the carboxy-terminal half of VPS35. VPS35 forms a horseshoe-shaped, right-handed, alpha-helical solenoid, the concave face of which completely covers the metal-binding site of VPS29, whereas the convex face exposes a series of hydrophobic interhelical grooves. Electron microscopy shows that the intact VPS26-VPS29-VPS35 complex is a stick-shaped, flexible structure, approximately 21 nm long. A hybrid structural model derived from crystal structures, electron microscopy, interaction studies and bioinformatics shows that the alpha-solenoid fold extends the full length of VPS35, and that VPS26 is bound at the opposite end from VPS29. This extended structure presents multiple binding sites for the SNX complex and receptor cargo, and appears capable of flexing to conform to curved vesicular membranes.
Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex.,Hierro A, Rojas AL, Rojas R, Murthy N, Effantin G, Kajava AV, Steven AC, Bonifacino JS, Hurley JH Nature. 2007 Oct 25;449(7165):1063-7. Epub 2007 Sep 23. PMID:17891154
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.