Solution structure of double super helix model
[APOA1_HUMAN] Defects in APOA1 are a cause of high density lipoprotein deficiency type 2 (HDLD2) [MIM:604091]; also known as familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA). Inheritance is autosomal dominant.  Defects in APOA1 are a cause of the low HDL levels observed in high density lipoprotein deficiency type 1 (HDLD1) [MIM:205400]; also known as analphalipoproteinemia or Tangier disease (TGD). HDLD1 is a recessive disorder characterized by the absence of plasma HDL, accumulation of cholesteryl esters, premature coronary artery disease, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent peripheral neuropathy and progressive muscle wasting and weakness. In HDLD1 patients, ApoA-I fails to associate with HDL probably because of the faulty conversion of pro-ApoA-I molecules into mature chains, either due to a defect in the converting enzyme activity or a specific structural defect in Tangier ApoA-I.  Note=A mutation in APOA1 is the cause of amyloid polyneuropathy-nephropathy Iowa type (AMYLIOWA); also known as amyloidosis van Allen type or familial amyloid polyneuropathy type III. AMYLIOWA is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of amyloid mainly constituted by apolipoprotein A1. The clinical picture is dominated by neuropathy in the early stages of the disease and nephropathy late in the course. Death is due in most cases to renal amyloidosis. Severe peptic ulcer disease can occurr in some and hearing loss is frequent. Cataracts is present in several, but vitreous opacities are not observed.    Defects in APOA1 are a cause of amyloidosis type 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200]; also known as systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis or Ostertag-type amyloidosis. AMYL8 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of apolipoprotein A1, fibrinogen and lysozyme amyloids. Viscera are particularly affected. There is no involvement of the nervous system. Clinical features include renal amyloidosis resulting in nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechial skin rash.  
[APOA1_HUMAN] Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
High density lipoprotein (HDL), the carrier of so-called "good" cholesterol, serves as the major athero-protective lipoprotein and has emerged as a key therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. We applied small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation and selective isotopic deuteration to the study of nascent HDL to obtain the low resolution structure in solution of the overall time-averaged conformation of apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) versus the lipid (acyl chain) core of the particle. Remarkably, apoA-I is observed to possess an open helical shape that wraps around a central ellipsoidal lipid phase. Using the low resolution SANS shapes of the protein and lipid core as scaffolding, an all-atom computational model for the protein and lipid components of nascent HDL was developed by integrating complementary structural data from hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and previously published constraints from multiple biophysical techniques. Both SANS data and the new computational model, the double superhelix model, suggest an unexpected structural arrangement of protein and lipids of nascent HDL, an anti-parallel double superhelix wrapped around an ellipsoidal lipid phase. The protein and lipid organization in nascent HDL envisages a potential generalized mechanism for lipoprotein biogenesis and remodeling, biological processes critical to sterol and lipid transport, organismal energy metabolism, and innate immunity.
Double superhelix model of high density lipoprotein.,Wu Z, Gogonea V, Lee X, Wagner MA, Li XM, Huang Y, Undurti A, May RP, Haertlein M, Moulin M, Gutsche I, Zaccai G, Didonato JA, Hazen SL J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 25;284(52):36605-19. Epub 2009 Oct 7. PMID:19812036
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.