[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [HIR2_HIRME] Hirudin is a potent thrombin-specific protease inhibitor. It forms a stable non-covalent complex with alpha-thrombin, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave fibrinogen.
The affinity of the hirudin49-64 segment for exosite 1 of thrombin has been used previously to enhance the potency of simple competitive inhibitors [DiMaio, J., Gibbs, B., Munn, D., Lefebvre, J. , Ni, F., Konishi, Y. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21698-21703., and Maraganore, J. M., Bourdon, P., Jablonski, J., Ramachandran, K. L., and Fenton, J. W., II (1990) Biochemistry 29, 7095-7087.]. Using a similar approach, we have enhanced the activity of two active site directed thrombin inhibitors by attaching this segment via a novel reverse oriented linker to each of two tripeptide boronate inhibitors. At P1, compound 1 contains an arginine-like, isothiouronium, side chain, while compound 2 contains an uncharged, bromopropyl residue. Inhibition of human alpha-thrombin by compound 1 shows slow, tight-binding competitive kinetics (final Ki of 2.2 pM, k1 of 3.51 x 10(7) M-1 s-1, and k-1 of 1.81 x 10(-)4 s-1). The addition of hirugen peptide (20 microM) competes for exosite 1 binding and restores the k1 and k-1 to that of the analogous tripeptide, 0.29 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 and 0.13 x 10(-)4 s-1, respectively. Compound 1 has enhanced specificity for thrombin over trypsin with KiTry/KiThr of approximately 900 compared to the analogous tripeptide, with KiTry/KiThr of approximately 4. Compound 2 acts as a competitive inhibitor (KiThr of 0.6 nM) and is highly selective with no effect on trypsin. Crystallographic analysis of complexes of human alpha-thrombin with compound 1 (1.8 A) and compound 2 (1.85 A) shows a covalent bond between the boron of the inhibitor and Ser195 (bond lengths B-O of 1.55 and 1.61 A, respectively). The isothiouronium group of compound 1 forms bidentate interactions with Asp189. The P2 and P3 residues of the inhibitors form interactions with the S2 and S3 sites of thrombin similar to other D-Phe-Pro based inhibitors [Bode, W., Turk, D., and Karshikov, A. (1992) Protein Sci. 1, 426-471.]. The linker exits the active site cleft of thrombin forming no interactions, while the binding of Hir49-64 segment to exosite 1 is similar to that previously described for hirudin [Rydel, T. J., Tulinsky, A., and Bode, W. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 221, 583-601.]. Because of the similarity of binding at each of these sites to that of the analogous peptides added alone, this approach may be used to improve the inhibitory activity of all types of active site directed thrombin inhibitors and may also be applicable to the design of inhibitors of other proteases.
Bifunctional peptide boronate inhibitors of thrombin: crystallographic analysis of inhibition enhanced by linkage to an exosite 1 binding peptide.,Skordalakes E, Elgendy S, Goodwin CA, Green D, Scully MF, Kakkar VV, Freyssinet JM, Dodson G, Deadman JJ Biochemistry. 1998 Oct 13;37(41):14420-7. PMID:9772168
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Rabiet MJ, Furie BC, Furie B. Molecular defect of prothrombin Barcelona. Substitution of cysteine for arginine at residue 273. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15045-8. PMID:3771562
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↑ Skordalakes E, Elgendy S, Goodwin CA, Green D, Scully MF, Kakkar VV, Freyssinet JM, Dodson G, Deadman JJ. Bifunctional peptide boronate inhibitors of thrombin: crystallographic analysis of inhibition enhanced by linkage to an exosite 1 binding peptide. Biochemistry. 1998 Oct 13;37(41):14420-7. PMID:9772168 doi:10.1021/bi980225a