CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THROMBIN WITH THIAZOLE-CONTAINING INHIBITORS: PROBES OF THE S1' BINDING SITE
[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels.            Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [HIRV2_HIRME] Hirudin is a potent thrombin-specific protease inhibitor. It forms a stable non-covalent complex with alpha-thrombin, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave fibrinogen.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Structures of the blood clotting enzyme thrombin complexed with hirugen and two active site inhibitors, RWJ-50353 10080(N-methyl-D-phenylalanyl-N-[5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-1- [[(2-benzothiazolyl)carbonyl]butyl]-L-prolinamide trifluoroacetate hydrate) and RWJ-50215 (N-[4-(aminoiminomethyl)amino-1-[2- (thiazol-2-ylcarbonylethyl)piperidin- 1-ylcarbonyl]butyl]-5-(dimethylamino)naphthalenesulfonamide trifluoroacetate hydrate), were determined by x-ray crystallography. The refinements converged at R values of 0.158 in the 7.0-2.3-A range for RWJ-50353 and 0.155 in the 7.0-1.8-A range for RWJ-50215. Interactions between the protein and the thiazole rings of the two inhibitors provide new valuable information about the S1' binding site of thrombin. The RWJ-50353 inhibitor consists of an S1'-binding benzothiazole group linked to the D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethyl ketone motif. Interactions with the S1-S3 sites are similar to the D-phenylalanyl-prolyl-arginyl chloromethylketone structure. In RWJ-50215, a S1'-binding 2-ketothiazole group was added to the thrombin inhibitor-like framework of dansylarginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl)amide. The geometry at the S1-S3 sites here is also similar to that of the parent compound. The benzothiazole and 2-ketothiazole groups bind in a cavity surrounded by His57, Tyr60A, Trp60D, and Lys60F. This location of the S1' binding site is consistent with previous structures of thrombin complexes with hirulog-3, CVS-995, and hirutonin-2 and -6. The ring nitrogen of the RWJ-50353 benzothiazole forms a hydrogen bond with His57, and Lys60F reorients because of close contacts. The oxygen and nitrogen of the ketothiazole of RWJ-50215 hydrogen bond with the NZ atom of Lys60F.
Crystal structures of thrombin with thiazole-containing inhibitors: probes of the S1' binding site.,Matthews JH, Krishnan R, Costanzo MJ, Maryanoff BE, Tulinsky A Biophys J. 1996 Nov;71(5):2830-9. PMID:8913620
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.