|1a4w, resolution 1.80Å ()|
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THROMBIN WITH THIAZOLE-CONTAINING INHIBITORS: PROBES OF THE S1' BINDING SITE
Structures of the blood clotting enzyme thrombin complexed with hirugen and two active site inhibitors, RWJ-50353 10080(N-methyl-D-phenylalanyl-N-[5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-1- [[(2-benzothiazolyl)carbonyl]butyl]-L-prolinamide trifluoroacetate hydrate) and RWJ-50215 (N-[4-(aminoiminomethyl)amino-1-[2- (thiazol-2-ylcarbonylethyl)piperidin- 1-ylcarbonyl]butyl]-5-(dimethylamino)naphthalenesulfonamide trifluoroacetate hydrate), were determined by x-ray crystallography. The refinements converged at R values of 0.158 in the 7.0-2.3-A range for RWJ-50353 and 0.155 in the 7.0-1.8-A range for RWJ-50215. Interactions between the protein and the thiazole rings of the two inhibitors provide new valuable information about the S1' binding site of thrombin. The RWJ-50353 inhibitor consists of an S1'-binding benzothiazole group linked to the D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethyl ketone motif. Interactions with the S1-S3 sites are similar to the D-phenylalanyl-prolyl-arginyl chloromethylketone structure. In RWJ-50215, a S1'-binding 2-ketothiazole group was added to the thrombin inhibitor-like framework of dansylarginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl)amide. The geometry at the S1-S3 sites here is also similar to that of the parent compound. The benzothiazole and 2-ketothiazole groups bind in a cavity surrounded by His57, Tyr60A, Trp60D, and Lys60F. This location of the S1' binding site is consistent with previous structures of thrombin complexes with hirulog-3, CVS-995, and hirutonin-2 and -6. The ring nitrogen of the RWJ-50353 benzothiazole forms a hydrogen bond with His57, and Lys60F reorients because of close contacts. The oxygen and nitrogen of the ketothiazole of RWJ-50215 hydrogen bond with the NZ atom of Lys60F.
Crystal structures of thrombin with thiazole-containing inhibitors: probes of the S1' binding site., Matthews JH, Krishnan R, Costanzo MJ, Maryanoff BE, Tulinsky A, Biophys J. 1996 Nov;71(5):2830-9. PMID:8913620
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [HIRV2_HIRME] Hirudin is a potent thrombin-specific protease inhibitor. It forms a stable non-covalent complex with alpha-thrombin, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave fibrinogen.
About this Structure
- Matthews JH, Krishnan R, Costanzo MJ, Maryanoff BE, Tulinsky A. Crystal structures of thrombin with thiazole-containing inhibitors: probes of the S1' binding site. Biophys J. 1996 Nov;71(5):2830-9. PMID:8913620 doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(96)79479-1
- ↑ Wang W, Fu Q, Zhou R, Wu W, Ding Q, Hu Y, Wang X, Wang H, Wang Z. Prothrombin Shanghai: hypoprothrombinaemia caused by substitution of Gla29 by Gly. Haemophilia. 2004 Jan;10(1):94-7. PMID:14962227
- ↑ Board PG, Shaw DC. Determination of the amino acid substitution in human prothrombin type 3 (157 Glu leads to Lys) and the localization of a third thrombin cleavage site. Br J Haematol. 1983 Jun;54(2):245-54. PMID:6405779
- ↑ Rabiet MJ, Furie BC, Furie B. Molecular defect of prothrombin Barcelona. Substitution of cysteine for arginine at residue 273. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15045-8. PMID:3771562
- ↑ Miyata T, Morita T, Inomoto T, Kawauchi S, Shirakami A, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Tokushima, a replacement of arginine-418 by tryptophan that impairs the fibrinogen clotting activity of derived thrombin Tokushima. Biochemistry. 1987 Feb 24;26(4):1117-22. PMID:3567158
- ↑ Inomoto T, Shirakami A, Kawauchi S, Shigekiyo T, Saito S, Miyoshi K, Morita T, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Tokushima: characterization of dysfunctional thrombin derived from a variant of human prothrombin. Blood. 1987 Feb;69(2):565-9. PMID:3801671
- ↑ Henriksen RA, Mann KG. Identification of the primary structural defect in the dysthrombin thrombin Quick I: substitution of cysteine for arginine-382. Biochemistry. 1988 Dec 27;27(26):9160-5. PMID:3242619
- ↑ Henriksen RA, Mann KG. Substitution of valine for glycine-558 in the congenital dysthrombin thrombin Quick II alters primary substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1989 Mar 7;28(5):2078-82. PMID:2719946
- ↑ Miyata T, Aruga R, Umeyama H, Bezeaud A, Guillin MC, Iwanaga S. Prothrombin Salakta: substitution of glutamic acid-466 by alanine reduces the fibrinogen clotting activity and the esterase activity. Biochemistry. 1992 Aug 25;31(33):7457-62. PMID:1354985
- ↑ Morishita E, Saito M, Kumabashiri I, Asakura H, Matsuda T, Yamaguchi K. Prothrombin Himi: a compound heterozygote for two dysfunctional prothrombin molecules (Met-337-->Thr and Arg-388-->His). Blood. 1992 Nov 1;80(9):2275-80. PMID:1421398
- ↑ Iwahana H, Yoshimoto K, Shigekiyo T, Shirakami A, Saito S, Itakura M. Detection of a single base substitution of the gene for prothrombin Tokushima. The application of PCR-SSCP for the genetic and molecular analysis of dysprothrombinemia. Int J Hematol. 1992 Feb;55(1):93-100. PMID:1349838
- ↑ James HL, Kim DJ, Zheng DQ, Girolami A. Prothrombin Padua I: incomplete activation due to an amino acid substitution at a factor Xa cleavage site. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994 Oct;5(5):841-4. PMID:7865694
- ↑ Degen SJ, McDowell SA, Sparks LM, Scharrer I. Prothrombin Frankfurt: a dysfunctional prothrombin characterized by substitution of Glu-466 by Ala. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Feb;73(2):203-9. PMID:7792730
- ↑ Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
- ↑ Pihusch R, Buchholz T, Lohse P, Rubsamen H, Rogenhofer N, Hasbargen U, Hiller E, Thaler CJ. Thrombophilic gene mutations and recurrent spontaneous abortion: prothrombin mutation increases the risk in the first trimester. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2001 Aug;46(2):124-31. PMID:11506076
- ↑ Glenn KC, Frost GH, Bergmann JS, Carney DH. Synthetic peptides bind to high-affinity thrombin receptors and modulate thrombin mitogenesis. Pept Res. 1988 Nov-Dec;1(2):65-73. PMID:2856554