[FIBA_HUMAN] Defects in FGA are a cause of congenital afibrinogenemia (CAFBN) [MIM:202400]. This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bleeding that varies from mild to severe and by complete absence or extremely low levels of plasma and platelet fibrinogen. Note=The majority of cases of afibrinogenemia are due to truncating mutations. Variations in position Arg-35 (the site of cleavage of fibrinopeptide a by thrombin) leads to alpha-dysfibrinogenemias. Defects in FGA are a cause of amyloidosis type 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200]; also known as systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis or Ostertag-type amyloidosis. AMYL8 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of apolipoprotein A1, fibrinogen and lysozyme amyloids. Viscera are particularly affected. There is no involvement of the nervous system. Clinical features include renal amyloidosis resulting in nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechial skin rash.
[FIBA_HUMAN] Fibrinogen has a double function: yielding monomers that polymerize into fibrin and acting as a cofactor in platelet aggregation. [THRB_BOVIN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing (By similarity).
The tetradecapeptide Ac-D-F-L-A-E-G-G-G-V-R-G-P-R-V-OMe, which mimics residues 7f-20f of the A alpha-chain of human fibrinogen, has been co-crystallized with bovine thrombin from ammonium sulfate solutions in space group P2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a = 83.0 A, b = 89.4 A, c = 99.3 A, and beta = 106.6 degrees. Three crystallographically independent complexes were located in the asymmetric unit by molecular replacement using the native bovine thrombin structure as a model. The standard crystallographic R-factor is 0.167 at 2.3-A resolution. Excellent electron density could be traced for the decapeptide, beginning with Asp-7f and ending with Arg-16f in the active site of thrombin; the remaining 4 residues, which have been cleaved from the tetradecapeptide at the Arg-16f/Gly-17f bond, are not seen. Residues 7f-11f at the NH2 terminus of the peptide form a single turn of alpha-helix that is connected by Gly-12f, which has a positive phi angle, to an extended chain containing residues 13f-16f. The major specific interactions between the peptide and thrombin are 1) a hydrophobic cage formed by residues Tyr-60A, Trp-60D, Leu-99, Ile-174, Trp-215, Leu-9f, Gly-13f, and Val-15f that surrounds Phe-8f; 2) a hydrogen bond linking Phe-8f NH to Lys-97 O;3) a salt link between Glu-11f and Arg-173; 4) two antiparallel beta-sheet hydrogen bonds between Gly-14f and Gly-216; and 5) the insertion of Arg-16f into the specificity pocket. Binding of the peptide is accompanied by a considerable shift in two of the loops near the active site relative to human D-phenyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl chloromethyl ketone (PPACK)-thrombin.
The structure of residues 7-16 of the A alpha-chain of human fibrinogen bound to bovine thrombin at 2.3-A resolution.,Martin PD, Robertson W, Turk D, Huber R, Bode W, Edwards BF J Biol Chem. 1992 Apr 15;267(11):7911-20. PMID:1560020
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Benson MD, Liepnieks J, Uemichi T, Wheeler G, Correa R. Hereditary renal amyloidosis associated with a mutant fibrinogen alpha-chain. Nat Genet. 1993 Mar;3(3):252-5. PMID:8097946 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng0393-252
↑ Martin PD, Robertson W, Turk D, Huber R, Bode W, Edwards BF. The structure of residues 7-16 of the A alpha-chain of human fibrinogen bound to bovine thrombin at 2.3-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1992 Apr 15;267(11):7911-20. PMID:1560020