HUMAN TRANSTHYRETIN (PREALBUMIN)
[TTHY_HUMAN] Defects in TTR are the cause of amyloidosis transthyretin-related (AMYL-TTR) [MIM:105210]. A hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to transthyretin amyloid deposition. Protein fibrils can form in different tissues leading to amyloid polyneuropathies, amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, systemic senile amyloidosis. The disease includes leptomeningeal amyloidosis that is characterized by primary involvement of the central nervous system. Neuropathologic examination shows amyloid in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels, in pia arachnoid, and subpial deposits. Some patients also develop vitreous amyloid deposition that leads to visual impairment (oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis). Clinical features include seizures, stroke-like episodes, dementia, psychomotor deterioration, variable amyloid deposition in the vitreous humor.                                                                        Defects in TTR are a cause of hyperthyroxinemia dystransthyretinemic euthyroidal (HTDE) [MIM:145680]. It is a condition characterized by elevation of total and free thyroxine in healthy, euthyroid persons without detectable binding protein abnormalities. Defects in TTR are a cause of carpal tunnel syndrome type 1 (CTS1) [MIM:115430]. It is a condition characterized by entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. This condition may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma, wrist injuries, amyloid neuropathies, rheumatoid arthritis.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Insoluble protein fibrils resulting from the self-assembly of a conformational intermediate are implicated as the causative agent in several severe human amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and senile systemic amyloidosis. The latter two diseases are associated with transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibrils, which appear to form in the acidic partial denaturing environment of the lysosome. Here we demonstrate that flufenamic acid (Flu) inhibits the conformational changes of TTR associated with amyloid fibril formation. The crystal structure of TTR complexed with Flu demonstrates that Flu mediates intersubunit hydrophobic interactions and intersubunit hydrogen bonds that stabilize the normal tetrameric fold of TTR. A small-molecule inhibitor that stabilizes the normal conformation of a protein is desirable as a possible approach to treat amyloid diseases. Molecules such as Flu also provide the means to rigorously test the amyloid hypothesis, i.e., the apparent causative role of amyloid fibrils in amyloid disease.
Inhibiting transthyretin conformational changes that lead to amyloid fibril formation.,Peterson SA, Klabunde T, Lashuel HA, Purkey H, Sacchettini JC, Kelly JW Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 27;95(22):12956-60. PMID:9789022
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.