RELOCATING A NEGATIVE CHARGE IN THE BINDING POCKET OF TRYPSIN
[A4_HUMAN] Defects in APP are the cause of Alzheimer disease type 1 (AD1) [MIM:104300]. AD1 is a familial early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. It can be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituent of these plaques is the neurotoxic amyloid-beta-APP 40-42 peptide (s), derived proteolytically from the transmembrane precursor protein APP by sequential secretase processing. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products such as C31 derived from APP, are also implicated in neuronal death.                          Defects in APP are the cause of cerebral amyloid angiopathy APP-related (CAA-APP) [MIM:605714]. A hereditary localized amyloidosis due to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition in the cerebral vessels. The principal clinical characteristics are recurrent cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhages, recurrent strokes, cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and progressive mental deterioration. Patients develop cerebral hemorrhage because of the severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Parenchymal amyloid deposits are rare and largely in the form of pre-amyloid lesions or diffuse plaque-like structures. They are Congo red negative and lack the dense amyloid cores commonly present in Alzheimer disease. Some affected individuals manifest progressive aphasic dementia, leukoencephalopathy, and occipital calcifications.    
[A4_HUMAN] Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.     Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with Also bind GPC1 in lipid rafts.     Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain (By similarity).     The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.     N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).    
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The functional and structural consequences of altering the position of the negatively charged aspartate residue at the base of the specificity pocket of trypsin have been examined by site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic characterization and crystallographic analysis. Anionic rat trypsin D189G/G226D exhibits a high level of catalytic activity on activated amide substrates, but its relative preference for lysine versus arginine as the P1 site residue is shifted by 30 to 40-fold in favor of lysine. The crystal structure of this variant has been determined in complexes with BPTI (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor), APPI (amyloid beta-protein precursor inhibitor domain) and benzamidine inhibitors, at resolutions of 2.1 A, 2.5 A and 2.2 A, respectively. Asp226 bridges the base of the specificity pocket with its negative charge partially buried by interactions made with Ser190 and Tyr228. An equal reduction in the affinity of the variant enzyme for Arg and Lys substrates is attributable to a decreased electrostatic interaction of each ligand with the relocated aspartate residue. Comparison of structural and functional parameters with those of wild-type trypsin suggests that direct hydrogen-bonding electrostatic contacts in the S1 site do not significantly improve the free energy of substrate binding relative to indirect water-mediated interactions. The conformation adopted by Asp226, as well as by other adjacent side-chain and backbone groups, depends upon the ligand bound in the primary specificity pocket. This structural flexibility may be of critical importance to the retention of catalytic activity by the variant enzyme.
Relocating a negative charge in the binding pocket of trypsin.,Perona JJ, Tsu CA, McGrath ME, Craik CS, Fletterick RJ J Mol Biol. 1993 Apr 5;230(3):934-49. PMID:8478942
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.