[GELS_HUMAN] Defects in GSN are the cause of amyloidosis type 5 (AMYL5) [MIM:105120]; also known as familial amyloidosis Finnish type. AMYL5 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to gelsolin amyloid deposition. It is typically characterized by cranial neuropathy and lattice corneal dystrophy. Most patients have modest involvement of internal organs, but severe systemic disease can develop in some individuals causing peripheral polyneuropathy, amyloid cardiomyopathy, and nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure.
[GELS_HUMAN] Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembly of monomers into filaments (nucleation) as well as sever filaments already formed. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.
Replacement of residues 228-230 or 228-232 of subdomain 4 in Dictyostelium actin with the corresponding Tetrahymena sequence (QTA to KAY replacement: half chimera-1; QTAAS to KAYKE replacement: full chimera) leads to a higher Ca(2+)-activation of the regulated acto-myosin subfragment-1 ATPase activity. The ratio of ATPase activation in the presence of tropomyosin-troponin and Ca(2+) to that without tropomyosin-troponin becomes about four times as large as the ratio for the wild-type actin. To understand the structural basis of this higher Ca(2+)-activation, we have determined the crystal structures of the 1:1 complex of Dictyostelium mutant actins (half chimera-1 and full chimera) with gelsolin segment-1 to 2.0 A and 2.4 A resolution, respectively, together with the structure of wild-type actin as a control. Although there were local changes on the surface of the subdomain 4 and the phenolic side-chain of Tyr230 displaced the side-chain of Leu236 from a non-polar pocket to a more solvent-accessible position, the structures of the actin chimeras showed that the mutations in the 228-232 region did not introduce large changes in the overall actin structure. This suggests that residues near position 230 formed part of the tropomyosin binding site on actin in actively contracting muscle. The higher Ca(2+)-activation observed with A230Y-containing mutants can be understood in terms of a three-state model for thin filament regulation in which, in the presence of both Ca(2+) and myosin heads, the local changes of actin generated by the mutation (especially its phenolic side-chain) facilitate the transition of thin filaments from a "closed" state to an "open" state. Between 394 and 469 water molecules were identified in the different structures and it was found that actin recognizes hydrated forms of the adenine base and the Ca ion in the nucleotide binding site.
Structural basis for the higher Ca(2+)-activation of the regulated actin-activated myosin ATPase observed with Dictyostelium/Tetrahymena actin chimeras.,Matsuura Y, Stewart M, Kawamoto M, Kamiya N, Saeki K, Yasunaga T, Wakabayashi T J Mol Biol. 2000 Feb 18;296(2):579-95. PMID:10669610
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Haltia M, Prelli F, Ghiso J, Kiuru S, Somer H, Palo J, Frangione B. Amyloid protein in familial amyloidosis (Finnish type) is homologous to gelsolin, an actin-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Mar 30;167(3):927-32. PMID:2157434
↑ Maury CP, Alli K, Baumann M. Finnish hereditary amyloidosis. Amino acid sequence homology between the amyloid fibril protein and human plasma gelsoline. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jan 15;260(1):85-7. PMID:2153578
↑ Ghiso J, Haltia M, Prelli F, Novello J, Frangione B. Gelsolin variant (Asn-187) in familial amyloidosis, Finnish type. Biochem J. 1990 Dec 15;272(3):827-30. PMID:2176481
↑ de la Chapelle A, Tolvanen R, Boysen G, Santavy J, Bleeker-Wagemakers L, Maury CP, Kere J. Gelsolin-derived familial amyloidosis caused by asparagine or tyrosine substitution for aspartic acid at residue 187. Nat Genet. 1992 Oct;2(2):157-60. PMID:1338910 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1092-157
↑ Kim J, Lee JE, Heynen-Genel S, Suyama E, Ono K, Lee K, Ideker T, Aza-Blanc P, Gleeson JG. Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1048-51. doi: 10.1038/nature08895. PMID:20393563 doi:10.1038/nature08895
↑ Matsuura Y, Stewart M, Kawamoto M, Kamiya N, Saeki K, Yasunaga T, Wakabayashi T. Structural basis for the higher Ca(2+)-activation of the regulated actin-activated myosin ATPase observed with Dictyostelium/Tetrahymena actin chimeras. J Mol Biol. 2000 Feb 18;296(2):579-95. PMID:10669610 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1999.3467