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STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL IMPORTANCE OF A CONSERVED HYDROGEN BOND NETWORK IN HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II
[CAH2_HUMAN] Defects in CA2 are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 3 (OPTB3) [MIM:259730]; also known as osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, Guibaud-Vainsel syndrome or marble brain disease. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. The disorder occurs in two forms: a severe autosomal recessive form occurring in utero, infancy, or childhood, and a benign autosomal dominant form occurring in adolescence or adulthood. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is usually associated with normal or elevated amount of non-functional osteoclasts. OPTB3 is associated with renal tubular acidosis, cerebral calcification (marble brain disease) and in some cases with mental retardation.    
[CAH2_HUMAN] Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Amino acid substitutions at Thr199 of human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) (Thr199-->Ser, Ala, Val, and Pro) were characterized to investigate the importance of a conserved hydrogen bonding network. The three-dimensional structures of azide-bound and sulfate-bound T199V CAIIs were determined by x-ray crystallographic methods at 2.25 and 2.4 A, respectively (final crystallographic R factors are 0.173 and 0.174, respectively). The CO2 hydrase activities of T199S and T199P variants suggest that the side chain methyl and backbone amino functionalities stabilize the transition state by approximately 0.4 and 0.8 kcal/mol, respectively. The side chain hydroxyl group causes: stabilization of zinc-hydroxide relative to zinc-water (pKa increases approximately 2 units); stabilization of the transition state for bicarbonate dehydration relative to the CAII.HCO3- complex (approximately 5 kcal/mol); and destabilization of the CAII.HCO3- complex (approximately 0.8 kcal/mol). An inverse correlation between log(kcatCO2/KM) and the pKa of zinc-water (r = 0.95, slope = -1) indicates that the hydrogen bonding network stabilizes the chemical transition state and zinc-hydroxide similarly. These data are consistent with the hydroxyl group of Thr199 forming a hydrogen bond with the transition state and a non-hydrogen-bonded van der Waals contact with CAII.HCO3-.
Structural and functional importance of a conserved hydrogen bond network in human carbonic anhydrase II.,Krebs JF, Ippolito JA, Christianson DW, Fierke CA J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 25;268(36):27458-66. PMID:8262987
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.