[PAI1_HUMAN] Defects in SERPINE1 are the cause of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1D) [MIM:613329]. It is a hematologic disorder characterized by increased bleeding after trauma, injury, or surgery. Affected females have menorrhagia. The bleeding defect is due to increased fibrinolysis of fibrin blood clots due to deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, which inhibits tissue and urinary activators of plasminogen. Note=High concentrations of SERPINE1 seem to contribute to the development of venous but not arterial occlusions.
[PAI1_HUMAN] Serine protease inhibitor. This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, protein C and matriptase-3/TMPRSS7. Its rapid interaction with PLAT may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis.
Serpins exhibit a range of physiological roles and can contribute to certain disease states dependent on their various conformations. Understanding the mechanisms of the large-scale conformational reorganizations of serpins may lead to a better understanding of their roles in various cardiovascular diseases. We have studied the serpin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), in both the active and the latent state and found that anionic halide ions may play a role in the active-to-latent structural transition. Crystallographic analysis of a stable mutant form of active PAI-1 identified an anion-binding site between the central beta-sheet and a small surface domain. A chloride ion was modeled in this site, and its identity was confirmed by soaking crystals in a bromide-containing solution and calculating a crystallographic difference map. The anion thus located forms a 4-fold ligated linchpin that tethers the surface domain to the central beta-sheet into which the reactive center loop must insert during the active-to-latent transition. Timecourse experiments measuring active PAI-1 stability in the presence of various halide ions showed a clear trend for stabilization of the active form with F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) >> I(-). We propose that the "stickiness" of this pin (i.e., the electronegativity of the anion) contributes to the energetics of the active-to-latent transition in the PAI-1 serpin.
Structures of active and latent PAI-1: a possible stabilizing role for chloride ions.,Stout TJ, Graham H, Buckley DI, Matthews DJ Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8460-9. PMID:10913251
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Fay WP, Parker AC, Condrey LR, Shapiro AD. Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency: characterization of a large kindred with a null mutation in the PAI-1 gene. Blood. 1997 Jul 1;90(1):204-8. PMID:9207454
↑ Szabo R, Netzel-Arnett S, Hobson JP, Antalis TM, Bugge TH. Matriptase-3 is a novel phylogenetically preserved membrane-anchored serine protease with broad serpin reactivity. Biochem J. 2005 Aug 15;390(Pt 1):231-42. PMID:15853774 doi:BJ20050299
↑ Stout TJ, Graham H, Buckley DI, Matthews DJ. Structures of active and latent PAI-1: a possible stabilizing role for chloride ions. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8460-9. PMID:10913251