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1dzg, resolution 2.80Å ()
Ligands: ,
Related: 1ant, 1ath, 2ant, 1br8, 1dzh
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml



Publication Abstract from PubMed

Antithrombin is unique among the serpins in that it circulates in a native conformation that is kinetically inactive toward its target proteinase, factor Xa. Activation occurs upon binding of a specific pentasaccharide sequence found in heparin that results in a rearrangement of the reactive center loop removing constraints on the active center P1 residue. We determined the crystal structure of an activated antithrombin variant, N135Q S380C-fluorescein (P14-fluorescein), in order to see how full activation is achieved in the absence of heparin and how the structural effects of the substitution in the hinge region are translated to the heparin binding region. The crystal structure resembles native antithrombin except in the hinge and heparin binding regions. The absence of global conformational change allows for identification of specific interactions, centered on Glu(381) (P13), that are responsible for maintenance of the solution equilibrium between the native and activated forms and establishes the existence of an electrostatic link between the hinge region and the heparin binding region. A revised model for the mechanism of the allosteric activation of antithrombin is proposed.

The conformational activation of antithrombin. A 2.85-A structure of a fluorescein derivative reveals an electrostatic link between the hinge and heparin binding regions., Huntington JA, McCoy A, Belzar KJ, Pei XY, Gettins PG, Carrell RW, J Biol Chem. 2000 May 19;275(20):15377-83. PMID:10809774

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[ANT3_HUMAN] Defects in SERPINC1 are the cause of antithrombin III deficiency (AT3D) [MIM:613118]. AT3D is an important risk factor for hereditary thrombophilia, a hemostatic disorder characterized by a tendency to recurrent thrombosis. AT3D is classified into 4 types. Type I: characterized by a 50% decrease in antigenic and functional levels. Type II: has defects affecting the thrombin-binding domain. Type III: alteration of the heparin-binding domain. Plasma AT-III antigen levels are normal in type II and III. Type IV: consists of miscellaneous group of unclassifiable mutations.[1][:][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][:][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]


[ANT3_HUMAN] Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin, matriptase-3/TMPRSS7, as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory activity is greatly enhanced in the presence of heparin.[36]

About this Structure

1dzg is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Huntington JA, McCoy A, Belzar KJ, Pei XY, Gettins PG, Carrell RW. The conformational activation of antithrombin. A 2.85-A structure of a fluorescein derivative reveals an electrostatic link between the hinge and heparin binding regions. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 19;275(20):15377-83. PMID:10809774
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  3. Lane DA, Bayston T, Olds RJ, Fitches AC, Cooper DN, Millar DS, Jochmans K, Perry DJ, Okajima K, Thein SL, Emmerich J. Antithrombin mutation database: 2nd (1997) update. For the Plasma Coagulation Inhibitors Subcommittee of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Thromb Haemost. 1997 Jan;77(1):197-211. PMID:9031473
  4. Koide T, Odani S, Takahashi K, Ono T, Sakuragawa N. Antithrombin III Toyama: replacement of arginine-47 by cysteine in hereditary abnormal antithrombin III that lacks heparin-binding ability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jan;81(2):289-93. PMID:6582486
  5. Chang JY, Tran TH. Antithrombin III Basel. Identification of a Pro-Leu substitution in a hereditary abnormal antithrombin with impaired heparin cofactor activity. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 25;261(3):1174-6. PMID:3080419
  6. Stephens AW, Thalley BS, Hirs CH. Antithrombin-III Denver, a reactive site variant. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jan 25;262(3):1044-8. PMID:3805013
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  8. Erdjument H, Lane DA, Panico M, Di Marzo V, Morris HR. Single amino acid substitutions in the reactive site of antithrombin leading to thrombosis. Congenital substitution of arginine 393 to cysteine in antithrombin Northwick Park and to histidine in antithrombin Glasgow. J Biol Chem. 1988 Apr 25;263(12):5589-93. PMID:3162733
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  13. Perry DJ, Daly M, Harper PL, Tait RC, Price J, Walker ID, Carrell RW. Antithrombin Cambridge II, 384 Ala to Ser. Further evidence of the role of the reactive centre loop in the inhibitory function of the serpins. FEBS Lett. 1991 Jul 22;285(2):248-50. PMID:1906811
  14. Olds RJ, Lane DA, Boisclair M, Sas G, Bock SC, Thein SL. Antithrombin Budapest 3. An antithrombin variant with reduced heparin affinity resulting from the substitution L99F. FEBS Lett. 1992 Apr 6;300(3):241-6. PMID:1555650
  15. Blajchman MA, Fernandez-Rachubinski F, Sheffield WP, Austin RC, Schulman S. Antithrombin-III-Stockholm: a codon 392 (Gly----Asp) mutation with normal heparin binding and impaired serine protease reactivity. Blood. 1992 Mar 15;79(6):1428-34. PMID:1547341
  16. Okajima K, Abe H, Maeda S, Motomura M, Tsujihata M, Nagataki S, Okabe H, Takatsuki K. Antithrombin III Nagasaki (Ser116-Pro): a heterozygous variant with defective heparin binding associated with thrombosis. Blood. 1993 Mar 1;81(5):1300-5. PMID:8443391
  17. Olds RJ, Lane DA, Beresford CH, Abildgaard U, Hughes PM, Thein SL. A recurrent deletion in the antithrombin gene, AT106-108(-6 bp), identified by DNA heteroduplex detection. Genomics. 1993 Apr;16(1):298-9. PMID:8486379 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/geno.1993.1184
  18. Emmerich J, Vidaud D, Alhenc-Gelas M, Chadeuf G, Gouault-Heilmann M, Aillaud MF, Aiach M. Three novel mutations of antithrombin inducing high-molecular-mass compounds. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994 Dec;14(12):1958-65. PMID:7981186
  19. Millar DS, Wacey AI, Ribando J, Melissari E, Laursen B, Woods P, Kakkar VV, Cooper DN. Three novel missense mutations in the antithrombin III (AT3) gene causing recurrent venous thrombosis. Hum Genet. 1994 Nov;94(5):509-12. PMID:7959685
  20. Jochmans K, Lissens W, Vervoort R, Peeters S, De Waele M, Liebaers I. Antithrombin-Gly 424 Arg: a novel point mutation responsible for type 1 antithrombin deficiency and neonatal thrombosis. Blood. 1994 Jan 1;83(1):146-51. PMID:8274732
  21. van Boven HH, Olds RJ, Thein SL, Reitsma PH, Lane DA, Briet E, Vandenbroucke JP, Rosendaal FR. Hereditary antithrombin deficiency: heterogeneity of the molecular basis and mortality in Dutch families. Blood. 1994 Dec 15;84(12):4209-13. PMID:7994035
  22. Bruce D, Perry DJ, Borg JY, Carrell RW, Wardell MR. Thromboembolic disease due to thermolabile conformational changes of antithrombin Rouen-VI (187 Asn-->Asp) J Clin Invest. 1994 Dec;94(6):2265-74. PMID:7989582 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI117589
  23. Emmerich J, Chadeuf G, Alhenc-Gelas M, Gouault-Heilman M, Toulon P, Fiessinger JN, Aiach M. Molecular basis of antithrombin type I deficiency: the first large in-frame deletion and two novel mutations in exon 6. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Oct;72(4):534-9. PMID:7878627
  24. Okajima K, Abe H, Wagatsuma M, Okabe H, Takatsuki K. Antithrombin III Kumamoto II; a single mutation at Arg393-His increased the affinity of antithrombin III for heparin. Am J Hematol. 1995 Jan;48(1):12-8. PMID:7832187
  25. Ozawa T, Takikawa Y, Niiya K, Fujiwara T, Suzuki K, Sato S, Sakuragawa N. Antithrombin Morioka (Cys 95-Arg): a novel missense mutation causing type I antithrombin deficiency. Thromb Haemost. 1997 Feb;77(2):403. PMID:9157604
  26. Fitches AC, Appleby R, Lane DA, De Stefano V, Leone G, Olds RJ. Impaired cotranslational processing as a mechanism for type I antithrombin deficiency. Blood. 1998 Dec 15;92(12):4671-6. PMID:9845533
  27. Jochmans K, Lissens W, Seneca S, Capel P, Chatelain B, Meeus P, Osselaer JC, Peerlinck K, Seghers J, Slacmeulder M, Stibbe J, van de Loo J, Vermylen J, Liebaers I, De Waele M. The molecular basis of antithrombin deficiency in Belgian and Dutch families. Thromb Haemost. 1998 Sep;80(3):376-81. PMID:9759613
  28. Picard V, Bura A, Emmerich J, Alhenc-Gelas M, Biron C, Houbouyan-Reveillard LL, Molho P, Labatide-Alanore A, Sie P, Toulon P, Verdy E, Aiach M. Molecular bases of antithrombin deficiency in French families: identification of seven novel mutations in the antithrombin gene. Br J Haematol. 2000 Sep;110(3):731-4. PMID:10997988
  29. Niiya K, Kiguchi T, Dansako H, Fujimura K, Fujimoto T, Iijima K, Tanimoto M, Harada M. Two novel gene mutations in type I antithrombin deficiency. Int J Hematol. 2001 Dec;74(4):469-72. PMID:11794707
  30. Baud O, Picard V, Durand P, Duchemin J, Proulle V, Alhenc-Gelas M, Devictor D, Dreyfus M. Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with a novel antithrombin gene mutation in a neonate. J Pediatr. 2001 Nov;139(5):741-3. PMID:11713457 doi:10.1067/mpd.2001.118191
  31. Mushunje A, Zhou A, Huntington JA, Conard J, Carrell RW. Antithrombin 'DREUX' (Lys 114Glu): a variant with complete loss of heparin affinity. Thromb Haemost. 2002 Sep;88(3):436-43. PMID:12353073 doi:10.1267/THRO88030436
  32. Picard V, Dautzenberg MD, Villoutreix BO, Orliaguet G, Alhenc-Gelas M, Aiach M. Antithrombin Phe229Leu: a new homozygous variant leading to spontaneous antithrombin polymerization in vivo associated with severe childhood thrombosis. Blood. 2003 Aug 1;102(3):919-25. Epub 2003 Feb 20. PMID:12595305 doi:10.1182/blood-2002-11-3391
  33. Nagaizumi K, Inaba H, Amano K, Suzuki M, Arai M, Fukutake K. Five novel and four recurrent point mutations in the antithrombin gene causing venous thrombosis. Int J Hematol. 2003 Jul;78(1):79-83. PMID:12894857
  34. David D, Ribeiro S, Ferrao L, Gago T, Crespo F. Molecular basis of inherited antithrombin deficiency in Portuguese families: identification of genetic alterations and screening for additional thrombotic risk factors. Am J Hematol. 2004 Jun;76(2):163-71. PMID:15164384 doi:10.1002/ajh.20067
  35. Kuhli C, Jochmans K, Scharrer I, Luchtenberg M, Hattenbach LO. Retinal vein occlusion associated with antithrombin deficiency secondary to a novel G9840C missense mutation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Aug;124(8):1165-9. PMID:16908819 doi:10.1001/archopht.124.8.1165
  36. Szabo R, Netzel-Arnett S, Hobson JP, Antalis TM, Bugge TH. Matriptase-3 is a novel phylogenetically preserved membrane-anchored serine protease with broad serpin reactivity. Biochem J. 2005 Aug 15;390(Pt 1):231-42. PMID:15853774 doi:BJ20050299

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