[ALBU_HUMAN] Defects in ALB are a cause of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) [MIM:103600]. FDH is a form of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia that is due to increased affinity of ALB for T(4). It is the most common cause of inherited euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian population.
[ALBU_HUMAN] Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most abundant proteins in the circulatory system and plays a key role in the transport of fatty acids, metabolites, and drugs. For many drugs, binding to serum albumin is a critical determinant of their distribution and pharmacokinetics; however, there have as yet been no high resolution crystal structures published of drug-albumin complexes. Here we describe high resolution crystal structures of HSA with two of the most widely used general anesthetics, propofol and halothane. In addition, we describe a crystal structure of HSA complexed with both halothane and the fatty acid, myristate. We show that the intravenous anesthetic propofol binds at two discrete sites on HSA in preformed pockets that have been shown to accommodate fatty acids. Similarly we show that the inhalational agent halothane binds (at concentrations in the pharmacologically relevant range) at three sites that are also fatty acid binding loci. At much higher halothane concentrations, we have identified additional sites that are occupied. All of the higher affinity anesthetic binding sites are amphiphilic in nature, with both polar and apolar parts, and anesthetic binding causes only minor changes in local structure.
Binding of the general anesthetics propofol and halothane to human serum albumin. High resolution crystal structures.,Bhattacharya AA, Curry S, Franks NP J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 8;275(49):38731-8. PMID:10940303
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Wada N, Chiba H, Shimizu C, Kijima H, Kubo M, Koike T. A novel missense mutation in codon 218 of the albumin gene in a distinct phenotype of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in a Japanese kindred. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3246-50. PMID:9329347
↑ Lu J, Stewart AJ, Sadler PJ, Pinheiro TJ, Blindauer CA. Albumin as a zinc carrier: properties of its high-affinity zinc-binding site. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1317-21. doi: 10.1042/BST0361317. PMID:19021548 doi:10.1042/BST0361317
↑ Bhattacharya AA, Curry S, Franks NP. Binding of the general anesthetics propofol and halothane to human serum albumin. High resolution crystal structures. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 8;275(49):38731-8. PMID:10940303 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M005460200