[ALBU_HUMAN] Defects in ALB are a cause of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) [MIM:103600]. FDH is a form of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia that is due to increased affinity of ALB for T(4). It is the most common cause of inherited euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian population.
[ALBU_HUMAN] Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Human serum albumin (HSA) is an abundant plasma protein that is responsible for the transport of fatty acids. HSA also binds and perturbs the pharmacokinetics of a wide range of drug compounds. Binding studies have revealed significant interactions between fatty acid and drug-binding sites on albumin but high-resolution structural information on ligand binding to the protein has been lacking. We report here a crystallographic study of five HSA-fatty acid complexes formed using saturated medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0). A total of seven binding sites that are occupied by all medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids have been identified, although medium-chain fatty acids are found to bind at additional sites on the protein, yielding a total of 11 distinct binding locations. Comparison of the different complexes reveals key similarities and significant differences in the modes of binding, and serves to rationalise much of the biochemical data on fatty acid interactions with albumin. The two principal drug-binding sites, in sub-domains IIA and IIIA, are observed to be occupied by fatty acids and one of them (in IIIA) appears to coincide with a high-affinity long-chain fatty acid binding site.
Crystallographic analysis reveals common modes of binding of medium and long-chain fatty acids to human serum albumin.,Bhattacharya AA, Grune T, Curry S J Mol Biol. 2000 Nov 10;303(5):721-32. PMID:11061971
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↑ Sunthornthepvarakul T, Angkeow P, Weiss RE, Hayashi Y, Refetoff S. An identical missense mutation in the albumin gene results in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in 8 unrelated families. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Jul 29;202(2):781-7. PMID:8048949
↑ Rushbrook JI, Becker E, Schussler GC, Divino CM. Identification of a human serum albumin species associated with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Feb;80(2):461-7. PMID:7852505
↑ Wada N, Chiba H, Shimizu C, Kijima H, Kubo M, Koike T. A novel missense mutation in codon 218 of the albumin gene in a distinct phenotype of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in a Japanese kindred. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3246-50. PMID:9329347
↑ Lu J, Stewart AJ, Sadler PJ, Pinheiro TJ, Blindauer CA. Albumin as a zinc carrier: properties of its high-affinity zinc-binding site. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1317-21. doi: 10.1042/BST0361317. PMID:19021548 doi:10.1042/BST0361317
↑ Bhattacharya AA, Grune T, Curry S. Crystallographic analysis reveals common modes of binding of medium and long-chain fatty acids to human serum albumin. J Mol Biol. 2000 Nov 10;303(5):721-32. PMID:11061971 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.2000.4158