CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN COMPLEXED TO ITS RECEPTOR AT 1.9 ANGSTROMS
[EPO_HUMAN] Genetic variation in EPO is associated with susceptbility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 2 (MVCD2) [MIM:612623]. These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. [EPOR_HUMAN] Defects in EPOR are the cause of familial erythrocytosis type 1 (ECYT1) [MIM:133100]. ECYT1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum red blood cell mass, elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit, hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin, erythropoietin low serum levels, and no increase in platelets nor leukocytes. It has a relatively benign course and does not progress to leukemia.  
[EPO_HUMAN] Erythropoietin is the principal hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass. [EPOR_HUMAN] Receptor for erythropoietin. Mediates erythropoietin-induced erythroblast proliferation and differentiation. Upon EPO stimulation, EPOR dimerizes triggering the JAK2/STAT5 signaling cascade. In some cell types, can also activate STAT1 and STAT3. May also activate the LYN tyrosine kinase. Isoform EPOR-T acts as a dominant-negative receptor of EPOR-mediated signaling.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Human erythropoietin is a haematopoietic cytokine required for the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells into red blood cells. It activates cells by binding and orientating two cell-surface erythropoietin receptors (EPORs) which trigger an intracellular phosphorylation cascade. The half-maximal response in a cellular proliferation assay is evoked at an erythropoietin concentration of 10 pM, 10(-2) of its Kd value for erythropoietin-EPOR binding site 1 (Kd approximately equal to nM), and 10(-5) of the Kd for erythropoietin-EPOR binding site 2 (Kd approximately equal to 1 microM). Overall half-maximal binding (IC50) of cell-surface receptors is produced with approximately 0.18 nM erythropoietin, indicating that only approximately 6% of the receptors would be bound in the presence of 10 pM erythropoietin. Other effective erythropoietin-mimetic ligands that dimerize receptors can evoke the same cellular responses but much less efficiently, requiring concentrations close to their Kd values (approximately 0.1 microM). The crystal structure of erythropoietin complexed to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of the erythropoietin receptor, determined at 1.9 A from two crystal forms, shows that erythropoietin imposes a unique 120 degrees angular relationship and orientation that is responsible for optimal signalling through intracellular kinase pathways.
Efficiency of signalling through cytokine receptors depends critically on receptor orientation.,Syed RS, Reid SW, Li C, Cheetham JC, Aoki KH, Liu B, Zhan H, Osslund TD, Chirino AJ, Zhang J, Finer-Moore J, Elliott S, Sitney K, Katz BA, Matthews DJ, Wendoloski JJ, Egrie J, Stroud RM Nature. 1998 Oct 1;395(6701):511-6. PMID:9774108
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.