1emu

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1emu, resolution 1.90Å ()
Ligands:
Related: 1dk8
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

STRUCTURE OF THE AXIN RGS-HOMOLOGOUS DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH A SAMP REPEAT FROM APC

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Axin and the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein are components of the Wnt/Wingless growth factor signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt signal, Axin and APC regulate cytoplasmic levels of the proto-oncogene beta-catenin through the formation of a large complex containing these three proteins, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and several other proteins. Both Axin and APC are known to be critical for beta-catenin regulation, and truncations in APC that eliminate the Axin-binding site result in human cancers. A protease-resistant domain of Axin that contains the APC-binding site is a member of the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) superfamily. The crystal structures of this domain alone and in complex with an Axin-binding sequence from APC reveal that the Axin-APC interaction occurs at a conserved groove on a face of the protein that is distinct from the G-protein interface of classical RGS proteins. The molecular interactions observed in the Axin-APC complex provide a rationale for the evolutionary conservation seen in both proteins.

Structural basis of the Axin-adenomatous polyposis coli interaction., Spink KE, Polakis P, Weis WI, EMBO J. 2000 May 15;19(10):2270-9. PMID:10811618

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[AXIN1_HUMAN] Defects in AXIN1 are involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550].[1][2] Defects in AXIN1 are a cause of caudal duplication anomaly (CADUA) [MIM:607864]. Caudal duplication anomaly is characterized by the occurrence of duplications of different organs in the caudal region. Note=Caudal duplication anomaly is associated with hypermethylation of the AXIN1 promoter.[3] [APC_HUMAN] Defects in APC are a cause of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) [MIM:175100]; which includes also Gardner syndrome (GS). FAP and GS contribute to tumor development in patients with uninherited forms of colorectal cancer. FAP is characterized by adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum, but also of upper gastrointestinal tract (ampullary, duodenal and gastric adenomas). This is a viciously premalignant disease with one or more polyps progressing through dysplasia to malignancy in untreated gene carriers with a median age at diagnosis of 40 years.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Defects in APC are a cause of hereditary desmoid disease (HDD) [MIM:135290]; also known as familial infiltrative fibromatosis (FIF). HDD is an autosomal dominant trait with 100% penetrance and possible variable expression among affected relatives. HDD patients show multifocal fibromatosis of the paraspinal muscles, breast, occiput, arms, lower ribs, abdominal wall, and mesentery. Desmoid tumors appears also as a complication of familial adenomatous polyposis.[14][15] Defects in APC are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children. Although the majority of medulloblastomas occur sporadically, some manifest within familial cancer syndromes such as Turcot syndrome and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).[16][17][18] Defects in APC are a cause of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS) [MIM:276300]; also known as Turcot syndrome or brain tumor-polyposis syndrome 1 (BTPS1). MMRCS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malignant tumors of the brain associated with multiple colorectal adenomas. Skin features include sebaceous cysts, hyperpigmented and cafe au lait spots.[19][20][21] Defects in APC are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]; also called gastric cancer intestinal or stomach cancer. Gastric cancer is a malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease.[22][23] Defects in APC are a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550]. This defect includes also the disease entity termed hepatoblastoma.[24][25]

Function

[AXIN1_HUMAN] Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling. Controls dorsoventral patterning via two opposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizes embryos by activating a Wnt-independent JNK signaling pathway. In Wnt signaling, probably facilitates the phosphorylation of CTNNB1 and APC by GSK3B. Likely to function as a tumor suppressor. Facilitates the phosphorylation of TP53 by HIPK2 upon ultraviolet irradiation. Enhances TGF-beta signaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7. Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development.[26][27][28] [APC_HUMAN] Tumor suppressor. Promotes rapid degradation of CTNNB1 and participates in Wnt signaling as a negative regulator. APC activity is correlated with its phosphorylation state. Activates the GEF activity of SPATA13 and ARHGEF4. Plays a role in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration. Required for MMP9 up-regulation via the JNK signaling pathway in colorectal tumor cells. Acts as a mediator of ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It is required for the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane and this localization of MACF1 is critical for its function in microtubule stabilization.[29][30][31][32][33]

About this Structure

1emu is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

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  2. Taniguchi K, Roberts LR, Aderca IN, Dong X, Qian C, Murphy LM, Nagorney DM, Burgart LJ, Roche PC, Smith DI, Ross JA, Liu W. Mutational spectrum of beta-catenin, AXIN1, and AXIN2 in hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatoblastomas. Oncogene. 2002 Jul 18;21(31):4863-71. PMID:12101426 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205591
  3. Satoh S, Daigo Y, Furukawa Y, Kato T, Miwa N, Nishiwaki T, Kawasoe T, Ishiguro H, Fujita M, Tokino T, Sasaki Y, Imaoka S, Murata M, Shimano T, Yamaoka Y, Nakamura Y. AXIN1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas, and growth suppression in cancer cells by virus-mediated transfer of AXIN1. Nat Genet. 2000 Mar;24(3):245-50. PMID:10700176 doi:10.1038/73448
  4. Eccles DM, van der Luijt R, Breukel C, Bullman H, Bunyan D, Fisher A, Barber J, du Boulay C, Primrose J, Burn J, Fodde R. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;59(6):1193-201. PMID:8940264
  5. Couture J, Mitri A, Lagace R, Smits R, Berk T, Bouchard HL, Fodde R, Alman B, Bapat B. A germline mutation at the extreme 3' end of the APC gene results in a severe desmoid phenotype and is associated with overexpression of beta-catenin in the desmoid tumor. Clin Genet. 2000 Mar;57(3):205-12. PMID:10782927
  6. Nishisho I, Nakamura Y, Miyoshi Y, Miki Y, Ando H, Horii A, Koyama K, Utsunomiya J, Baba S, Hedge P. Mutations of chromosome 5q21 genes in FAP and colorectal cancer patients. Science. 1991 Aug 9;253(5020):665-9. PMID:1651563
  7. Miyoshi Y, Nagase H, Ando H, Horii A, Ichii S, Nakatsuru S, Aoki T, Miki Y, Mori T, Nakamura Y. Somatic mutations of the APC gene in colorectal tumors: mutation cluster region in the APC gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Jul;1(4):229-33. PMID:1338904
  8. Nakatsuru S, Yanagisawa A, Ichii S, Tahara E, Kato Y, Nakamura Y, Horii A. Somatic mutation of the APC gene in gastric cancer: frequent mutations in very well differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Nov;1(8):559-63. PMID:1338691
  9. Nagase H, Miyoshi Y, Horii A, Aoki T, Petersen GM, Vogelstein B, Maher E, Ogawa M, Maruyama M, Utsunomiya J, et al.. Screening for germ-line mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis patients: 61 new patients and a summary of 150 unrelated patients. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(6):467-73. PMID:1338764 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.1380010603
  10. Dobbie Z, Spycher M, Hurliman R, Ammann R, Ammann T, Roth J, Muller A, Muller H, Scott RJ. Mutational analysis of the first 14 exons of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(11):1709-13. PMID:7833149
  11. Stella A, Montera M, Resta N, Marchese C, Susca F, Gentile M, Romio L, Pilia S, Prete F, Mareni C, et al.. Four novel mutations of the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene in FAP patients. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Sep;3(9):1687-8. PMID:7833931
  12. van der Luijt RB, Khan PM, Vasen HF, Tops CM, van Leeuwen-Cornelisse IS, Wijnen JT, van der Klift HM, Plug RJ, Griffioen G, Fodde R. Molecular analysis of the APC gene in 105 Dutch kindreds with familial adenomatous polyposis: 67 germline mutations identified by DGGE, PTT, and southern analysis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(1):7-16. PMID:8990002 doi:<7::AID-HUMU2>3.0.CO;2-8 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:1<7::AID-HUMU2>3.0.CO;2-8
  13. Lamlum H, Ilyas M, Rowan A, Clark S, Johnson V, Bell J, Frayling I, Efstathiou J, Pack K, Payne S, Roylance R, Gorman P, Sheer D, Neale K, Phillips R, Talbot I, Bodmer W, Tomlinson I. The type of somatic mutation at APC in familial adenomatous polyposis is determined by the site of the germline mutation: a new facet to Knudson's 'two-hit' hypothesis. Nat Med. 1999 Sep;5(9):1071-5. PMID:10470088 doi:10.1038/12511
  14. Eccles DM, van der Luijt R, Breukel C, Bullman H, Bunyan D, Fisher A, Barber J, du Boulay C, Primrose J, Burn J, Fodde R. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;59(6):1193-201. PMID:8940264
  15. Couture J, Mitri A, Lagace R, Smits R, Berk T, Bouchard HL, Fodde R, Alman B, Bapat B. A germline mutation at the extreme 3' end of the APC gene results in a severe desmoid phenotype and is associated with overexpression of beta-catenin in the desmoid tumor. Clin Genet. 2000 Mar;57(3):205-12. PMID:10782927
  16. Eccles DM, van der Luijt R, Breukel C, Bullman H, Bunyan D, Fisher A, Barber J, du Boulay C, Primrose J, Burn J, Fodde R. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;59(6):1193-201. PMID:8940264
  17. Couture J, Mitri A, Lagace R, Smits R, Berk T, Bouchard HL, Fodde R, Alman B, Bapat B. A germline mutation at the extreme 3' end of the APC gene results in a severe desmoid phenotype and is associated with overexpression of beta-catenin in the desmoid tumor. Clin Genet. 2000 Mar;57(3):205-12. PMID:10782927
  18. Huang H, Mahler-Araujo BM, Sankila A, Chimelli L, Yonekawa Y, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H. APC mutations in sporadic medulloblastomas. Am J Pathol. 2000 Feb;156(2):433-7. PMID:10666372
  19. Eccles DM, van der Luijt R, Breukel C, Bullman H, Bunyan D, Fisher A, Barber J, du Boulay C, Primrose J, Burn J, Fodde R. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;59(6):1193-201. PMID:8940264
  20. Couture J, Mitri A, Lagace R, Smits R, Berk T, Bouchard HL, Fodde R, Alman B, Bapat B. A germline mutation at the extreme 3' end of the APC gene results in a severe desmoid phenotype and is associated with overexpression of beta-catenin in the desmoid tumor. Clin Genet. 2000 Mar;57(3):205-12. PMID:10782927
  21. Hamilton SR, Liu B, Parsons RE, Papadopoulos N, Jen J, Powell SM, Krush AJ, Berk T, Cohen Z, Tetu B, et al.. The molecular basis of Turcot's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 30;332(13):839-47. PMID:7661930
  22. Eccles DM, van der Luijt R, Breukel C, Bullman H, Bunyan D, Fisher A, Barber J, du Boulay C, Primrose J, Burn J, Fodde R. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;59(6):1193-201. PMID:8940264
  23. Couture J, Mitri A, Lagace R, Smits R, Berk T, Bouchard HL, Fodde R, Alman B, Bapat B. A germline mutation at the extreme 3' end of the APC gene results in a severe desmoid phenotype and is associated with overexpression of beta-catenin in the desmoid tumor. Clin Genet. 2000 Mar;57(3):205-12. PMID:10782927
  24. Eccles DM, van der Luijt R, Breukel C, Bullman H, Bunyan D, Fisher A, Barber J, du Boulay C, Primrose J, Burn J, Fodde R. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;59(6):1193-201. PMID:8940264
  25. Couture J, Mitri A, Lagace R, Smits R, Berk T, Bouchard HL, Fodde R, Alman B, Bapat B. A germline mutation at the extreme 3' end of the APC gene results in a severe desmoid phenotype and is associated with overexpression of beta-catenin in the desmoid tumor. Clin Genet. 2000 Mar;57(3):205-12. PMID:10782927
  26. Kusano S, Raab-Traub N. I-mfa domain proteins interact with Axin and affect its regulation of the Wnt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Sep;22(18):6393-405. PMID:12192039
  27. Liu W, Rui H, Wang J, Lin S, He Y, Chen M, Li Q, Ye Z, Zhang S, Chan SC, Chen YG, Han J, Lin SC. Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. EMBO J. 2006 Apr 19;25(8):1646-58. Epub 2006 Apr 6. PMID:16601693 doi:7601057
  28. Li Q, Wang X, Wu X, Rui Y, Liu W, Wang J, Wang X, Liou YC, Ye Z, Lin SC. Daxx cooperates with the Axin/HIPK2/p53 complex to induce cell death. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;67(1):66-74. PMID:17210684 doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1671
  29. Kawasaki Y, Senda T, Ishidate T, Koyama R, Morishita T, Iwayama Y, Higuchi O, Akiyama T. Asef, a link between the tumor suppressor APC and G-protein signaling. Science. 2000 Aug 18;289(5482):1194-7. PMID:10947987
  30. Kawasaki Y, Sagara M, Shibata Y, Shirouzu M, Yokoyama S, Akiyama T. Identification and characterization of Asef2, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor specific for Rac1 and Cdc42. Oncogene. 2007 Dec 6;26(55):7620-267. Epub 2007 Jun 18. PMID:17599059 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210574
  31. Kawasaki Y, Tsuji S, Muroya K, Furukawa S, Shibata Y, Okuno M, Ohwada S, Akiyama T. The adenomatous polyposis coli-associated exchange factors Asef and Asef2 are required for adenoma formation in Apc(Min/+)mice. EMBO Rep. 2009 Dec;10(12):1355-62. doi: 10.1038/embor.2009.233. Epub 2009 Nov 6. PMID:19893577 doi:10.1038/embor.2009.233
  32. Sagara M, Kawasaki Y, Iemura SI, Natsume T, Takai Y, Akiyama T. Asef2 and Neurabin2 cooperatively regulate actin cytoskeletal organization and are involved in HGF-induced cell migration. Oncogene. 2009 Mar 12;28(10):1357-65. doi: 10.1038/onc.2008.478. Epub 2009 Jan, 19. PMID:19151759 doi:10.1038/onc.2008.478
  33. Zaoui K, Benseddik K, Daou P, Salaun D, Badache A. ErbB2 receptor controls microtubule capture by recruiting ACF7 to the plasma membrane of migrating cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18517-22. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.1000975107. Epub 2010 Oct 11. PMID:20937854 doi:10.1073/pnas.1000975107

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