CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF KINASE ASSOCIATED PHOSPHATASE (KAP) IN COMPLEX WITH PHOSPHO-CDK2
[CDKN3_HUMAN] May play a role in cell cycle regulation. Dual specificity phosphatase active toward substrates containing either phosphotyrosine or phosphoserine residues. Dephosphorylates CDK2 at 'Thr-160' in a cyclin-dependent manner.   [CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing. Phosphorylates CABLES1 (By similarity). Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. Involved in G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis; regulates homologous recombination-dependent repair by phosphorylating BRCA2, this phosphorylation is low in S phase when recombination is active, but increases as cells progress towards mitosis. In response to DNA damage, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination a reduction of CDK2-mediated BRCA2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of RB1 disturbs its interaction with E2F1. NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication. Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase. Required for vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition by being itself inactivated. Involved in the nitric oxide- (NO) mediated signaling in a nitrosylation/activation-dependent manner. USP37 is activated by phosphorylation and thus triggers G1-S transition. CTNNB1 phosphorylation regulates insulin internalization.                
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The CDK-interacting protein phosphatase KAP dephosphorylates phosphoThr-160 (pThr-160) of the CDK2 activation segment, the site of regulatory phosphorylation that is essential for kinase activity. Here we describe the crystal structure of KAP in association with pThr-160-CDK2, representing an example of a protein phosphatase in complex with its intact protein substrate. The major protein interface between the two molecules is formed by the C-terminal lobe of CDK2 and the C-terminal helix of KAP, regions remote from the kinase-activation segment and the KAP catalytic site. The kinase-activation segment interacts with the catalytic site of KAP almost entirely via the phosphate group of pThr-160. This interaction requires that the activation segment is unfolded and drawn away from the kinase molecule, inducing a conformation of CDK2 similar to the activated state observed in the CDK2/cyclin A complex.
Phosphoprotein-protein interactions revealed by the crystal structure of kinase-associated phosphatase in complex with phosphoCDK2.,Song H, Hanlon N, Brown NR, Noble ME, Johnson LN, Barford D Mol Cell. 2001 Mar;7(3):615-26. PMID:11463386
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.