[CDKN3_HUMAN] Defects in CDKN3 are found in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550].
[CDKN3_HUMAN] May play a role in cell cycle regulation. Dual specificity phosphatase active toward substrates containing either phosphotyrosine or phosphoserine residues. Dephosphorylates CDK2 at 'Thr-160' in a cyclin-dependent manner. [CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing. Phosphorylates CABLES1 (By similarity). Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. Involved in G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis; regulates homologous recombination-dependent repair by phosphorylating BRCA2, this phosphorylation is low in S phase when recombination is active, but increases as cells progress towards mitosis. In response to DNA damage, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination a reduction of CDK2-mediated BRCA2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of RB1 disturbs its interaction with E2F1. NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication. Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase. Required for vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition by being itself inactivated. Involved in the nitric oxide- (NO) mediated signaling in a nitrosylation/activation-dependent manner. USP37 is activated by phosphorylation and thus triggers G1-S transition. CTNNB1 phosphorylation regulates insulin internalization.
The CDK-interacting protein phosphatase KAP dephosphorylates phosphoThr-160 (pThr-160) of the CDK2 activation segment, the site of regulatory phosphorylation that is essential for kinase activity. Here we describe the crystal structure of KAP in association with pThr-160-CDK2, representing an example of a protein phosphatase in complex with its intact protein substrate. The major protein interface between the two molecules is formed by the C-terminal lobe of CDK2 and the C-terminal helix of KAP, regions remote from the kinase-activation segment and the KAP catalytic site. The kinase-activation segment interacts with the catalytic site of KAP almost entirely via the phosphate group of pThr-160. This interaction requires that the activation segment is unfolded and drawn away from the kinase molecule, inducing a conformation of CDK2 similar to the activated state observed in the CDK2/cyclin A complex.
Phosphoprotein-protein interactions revealed by the crystal structure of kinase-associated phosphatase in complex with phosphoCDK2.,Song H, Hanlon N, Brown NR, Noble ME, Johnson LN, Barford D Mol Cell. 2001 Mar;7(3):615-26. PMID:11463386
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Flores O, Wang Z, Knudsen KE, Burnstein KL. Nuclear targeting of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 reveals essential roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 localization and cyclin E in vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition. Endocrinology. 2010 Mar;151(3):896-908. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-1116. Epub 2010 Feb , 10. PMID:20147522 doi:10.1210/en.2009-1116
↑ Kumar S, Barthwal MK, Dikshit M. Cdk2 nitrosylation and loss of mitochondrial potential mediate NO-dependent biphasic effect on HL-60 cell cycle. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Mar 15;48(6):851-61. doi:, 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.01.004. Epub 2010 Jan 15. PMID:20079829 doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.01.004
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↑ Song H, Hanlon N, Brown NR, Noble ME, Johnson LN, Barford D. Phosphoprotein-protein interactions revealed by the crystal structure of kinase-associated phosphatase in complex with phosphoCDK2. Mol Cell. 2001 Mar;7(3):615-26. PMID:11463386