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1fun, resolution 2.85Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Activity: Superoxide dismutase, with EC number
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml



Publication Abstract from PubMed

Key charged residues in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) promote electrostatic steering of the superoxide substrate to the active site Cu ion, resulting in dismutation of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, Lys-136, along with the adjacent residues Glu-132 and Glu-133, forms a proposed electrostatic triad contributing to substrate recognition. Human Cu,Zn SODs with single-site replacements of Lys-136 by Arg,Ala, Gln, or Glu or with a triple-site substitution (Glu-132 and Glu-133 to Gln and Lys-136 to Ala) were made to test hypotheses regarding contributions of these residues to Cu,Zn SOD activity. The structural effects of these mutations were modeled computationally and validated by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of Cu,Zn SOD having the Lys-136-to-Glu replacement. Brownian dynamics simulations and multiple-site titration calculations predicted mutant reaction rates as well as ionic strength and pH effects measured by pulse-radiolytic experiments. Lys-136-to-Glu charge reversal decreased dismutation activity 50% from 2.2 x 10(9) to 1.2 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 due to repulsion of negatively charged superoxide, whereas charge-neutralizing substitutions (Lys-136 to Gln or Ala) had a less dramatic influence. In contrast, the triple-mutant Cu,Zn SOD (all three charges in the electrostatic triad neutralized) surprisingly doubled the reaction rate compared with wild-type enzyme but introduced phosphate inhibition. Computational and experimental reaction rates decreased with increasing ionic strength in all of the Lys-136 mutants, with charge reversal having a more pronounced effect than charge neutralization, implying that local electrostatic effects still govern the dismutation rates. Multiple-site titration analysis showed that deprotonation events throughout the enzyme are likely responsible for the gradual decrease in SOD activity above pH 9.5 and predicted a pKa value of 11.7 for Lys-136. Overall, Lys-136 and Glu-132 make comparable contributions to substrate recognition but are less critical to enzyme function than Arg-143, which is both mechanistically and electrostatically essential. Thus, the sequence-conserved residues of this electrostatic triad are evidently important solely for their electrostatic properties, which maintain the high catalytic rate and turnover of Cu,Zn SOD while simultaneously providing specificity by selecting against binding by other anions.

Computational, pulse-radiolytic, and structural investigations of lysine-136 and its role in the electrostatic triad of human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase., Fisher CL, Cabelli DE, Hallewell RA, Beroza P, Lo TP, Getzoff ED, Tainer JA, Proteins. 1997 Sep;29(1):103-12. PMID:9294870

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[SODC_HUMAN] Defects in SOD1 are the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1) [MIM:105400]. ALS1 is a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons and resulting in fatal paralysis. Sensory abnormalities are absent. Death usually occurs within 2 to 5 years. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is likely to be multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The disease is inherited in 5-10% of cases leading to familial forms.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][:][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]


[SODC_HUMAN] Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.

About this Structure

1fun is a 10 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


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  • Lu M, Min T, Eliezer D, Wu H. Native chemical ligation in covalent caspase inhibition by p35. Chem Biol. 2006 Feb;13(2):117-22. PMID:16492559 doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2005.12.007
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  2. Yonashiro R, Sugiura A, Miyachi M, Fukuda T, Matsushita N, Inatome R, Ogata Y, Suzuki T, Dohmae N, Yanagi S. Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL ubiquitinates mutant SOD1 and attenuates mutant SOD1-induced reactive oxygen species generation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Nov;20(21):4524-30. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E09-02-0112. Epub 2009, Sep 9. PMID:19741096 doi:10.1091/mbc.E09-02-0112
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  19. Pramatarova A, Figlewicz DA, Krizus A, Han FY, Ceballos-Picot I, Nicole A, Dib M, Meininger V, Brown RH, Rouleau GA. Identification of new mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Mar;56(3):592-6. PMID:7887412
  20. Ikeda M, Abe K, Aoki M, Ogasawara M, Kameya T, Watanabe M, Shoji M, Hirai S, Itoyama Y. A novel point mutation in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in a patient with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Mar;4(3):491-2. PMID:7795609
  21. Yulug IG, Katsanis N, de Belleroche J, Collinge J, Fisher EM. An improved protocol for the analysis of SOD1 gene mutations, and a new mutation in exon 4. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun;4(6):1101-4. PMID:7655468
  22. Sjalander A, Beckman G, Deng HX, Iqbal Z, Tainer JA, Siddique T. The D90A mutation results in a polymorphism of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase that is prevalent in northern Sweden and Finland. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun;4(6):1105-8. PMID:7655469
  23. Deng HX, Tainer JA, Mitsumoto H, Ohnishi A, He X, Hung WY, Zhao Y, Juneja T, Hentati A, Siddique T. Two novel SOD1 mutations in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun;4(6):1113-6. PMID:7655471
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