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1fxy, resolution 2.15Å ()
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml



Publication Abstract from PubMed

Protein functions have evolved in part via domain recombination events. Such events, for example, recombine structurally independent functional domains and shuffle targeting, regulatory, and/or catalytic functions. Domain recombination, however, can generate new functions, as implied by the observation of catalytic sites at interfaces of distinct folding domains. If useful to an evolving organism, such initially rudimentary functions would likely acquire greater efficiency and diversity, whereas the initially distinct folding domains would likely develop into single functional domains. This represents the probable evolution of the S1 serine protease family, whose two homologous beta-barrel subdomains assemble to form the binding sites and the catalytic machinery. Among S1 family members, the contact interface and catalytic residues are highly conserved whereas surrounding surfaces are highly variable. This observation suggests a new strategy to engineer viable proteins with novel properties, by swapping folding subdomains chosen from among protein family members. Such hybrid proteins would retain properties conserved throughout the family, including folding stability as single domain proteins, while providing new surfaces amenable to directed evolution or engineering of specific new properties. We show here that recombining the N-terminal subdomain from coagulation factor X with the C-terminal subdomain from trypsin creates a potent enzyme (fXYa) with novel properties, in particular a broad substrate specificity. As shown by the 2.15-A crystal structure, plasticity at the hydrophobic subdomain interface maintains activity, while surface loops are displaced compared with the parent subdomains. fXYa thus represents a new serine proteinase lineage with hybrid fX, trypsin, and novel properties.

New enzyme lineages by subdomain shuffling., Hopfner KP, Kopetzki E, Kresse GB, Bode W, Huber R, Engh RA, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Aug 18;95(17):9813-8. PMID:9707558

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[TRY1_HUMAN] Defects in PRSS1 are a cause of pancreatitis (PCTT) [MIM:167800]. A disease characterized by the presence of calculi in pancreatic ducts. It causes severe abdominal pain attacks.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]


[TRY1_HUMAN] Has activity against the synthetic substrates Boc-Phe-Ser-Arg-Mec, Boc-Leu-Thr-Arg-Mec, Boc-Gln-Ala-Arg-Mec and Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-Mec. The single-chain form is more active than the two-chain form against all of these substrates.[12]

About this Structure

1fxy is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Hopfner KP, Kopetzki E, Kresse GB, Bode W, Huber R, Engh RA. New enzyme lineages by subdomain shuffling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Aug 18;95(17):9813-8. PMID:9707558
  1. Teich N, Ockenga J, Hoffmeister A, Manns M, Mossner J, Keim V. Chronic pancreatitis associated with an activation peptide mutation that facilitates trypsin activation. Gastroenterology. 2000 Aug;119(2):461-5. PMID:10930381
  2. Whitcomb DC, Gorry MC, Preston RA, Furey W, Sossenheimer MJ, Ulrich CD, Martin SP, Gates LK Jr, Amann ST, Toskes PP, Liddle R, McGrath K, Uomo G, Post JC, Ehrlich GD. Hereditary pancreatitis is caused by a mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Nat Genet. 1996 Oct;14(2):141-5. PMID:8841182 doi:10.1038/ng1096-141
  3. Teich N, Bauer N, Mossner J, Keim V. Mutational screening of patients with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis: identification of further trypsinogen variants. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Feb;97(2):341-6. PMID:11866271 doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05467.x
  4. Gorry MC, Gabbaizedeh D, Furey W, Gates LK Jr, Preston RA, Aston CE, Zhang Y, Ulrich C, Ehrlich GD, Whitcomb DC. Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene are associated with recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1997 Oct;113(4):1063-8. PMID:9322498
  5. Teich N, Mossner J, Keim V. Mutations of the cationic trypsinogen in hereditary pancreatitis. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(1):39-43. PMID:9633818 doi:<39::AID-HUMU6>3.0.CO;2-P 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1998)12:1<39::AID-HUMU6>3.0.CO;2-P
  6. Witt H, Luck W, Becker M. A signal peptide cleavage site mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene is strongly associated with chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1999 Jul;117(1):7-10. PMID:10381903
  7. Ferec C, Raguenes O, Salomon R, Roche C, Bernard JP, Guillot M, Quere I, Faure C, Mercier B, Audrezet MP, Guillausseau PJ, Dupont C, Munnich A, Bignon JD, Le Bodic L. Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene and evidence for genetic heterogeneity in hereditary pancreatitis. J Med Genet. 1999 Mar;36(3):228-32. PMID:10204851
  8. Chen JM, Raguenes O, Ferec C, Deprez PH, Verellen-Dumoulin C. A CGC>CAT gene conversion-like event resulting in the R122H mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene and its implication in the genotyping of pancreatitis. J Med Genet. 2000 Nov;37(11):E36. PMID:11073545
  9. Pfutzer R, Myers E, Applebaum-Shapiro S, Finch R, Ellis I, Neoptolemos J, Kant JA, Whitcomb DC. Novel cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) N29T and R122C mutations cause autosomal dominant hereditary pancreatitis. Gut. 2002 Feb;50(2):271-2. PMID:11788572
  10. Teich N, Le Marechal C, Kukor Z, Caca K, Witzigmann H, Chen JM, Toth M, Mossner J, Keim V, Ferec C, Sahin-Toth M. Interaction between trypsinogen isoforms in genetically determined pancreatitis: mutation E79K in cationic trypsin (PRSS1) causes increased transactivation of anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2). Hum Mutat. 2004 Jan;23(1):22-31. PMID:14695529 doi:10.1002/humu.10285
  11. Teich N, Nemoda Z, Kohler H, Heinritz W, Mossner J, Keim V, Sahin-Toth M. Gene conversion between functional trypsinogen genes PRSS1 and PRSS2 associated with chronic pancreatitis in a six-year-old girl. Hum Mutat. 2005 Apr;25(4):343-7. PMID:15776435 doi:10.1002/humu.20148
  12. Koshikawa N, Yasumitsu H, Nagashima Y, Umeda M, Miyazaki K. Identification of one- and two-chain forms of trypsinogen 1 produced by a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line. Biochem J. 1994 Oct 1;303 ( Pt 1):187-90. PMID:7945238

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