CR2-C3D COMPLEX STRUCTURE
[CO3_HUMAN] Defects in C3 are the cause of complement component 3 deficiency (C3D) [MIM:613779]. A rare defect of the complement classical pathway. Patients develop recurrent, severe, pyogenic infections because of ineffective opsonization of pathogens. Some patients may also develop autoimmune disorders, such as arthralgia and vasculitic rashes, lupus-like syndrome and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.     [:] Genetic variation in C3 is associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration type 9 (ARMD9) [MIM:611378]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.  Defects in C3 are a cause of susceptibility to hemolytic uremic syndrome atypical type 5 (AHUS5) [MIM:612925]. An atypical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome. It is a complex genetic disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and absence of episodes of enterocolitis and diarrhea. In contrast to typical hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical forms have a poorer prognosis, with higher death rates and frequent progression to end-stage renal disease. Note=Susceptibility to the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome can be conferred by mutations in various components of or regulatory factors in the complement cascade system. Other genes may play a role in modifying the phenotype.   Note=Increased levels of C3 and its cleavage product ASP, are associated with obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Short-term endurance training reduces baseline ASP levels and subsequently fat storage. [CR2_HUMAN] Genetic variations in CR2 are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus type 9 (SLEB9) [MIM:610927]. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a complex genetic basis. SLE is an inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. Defects in CR2 are the cause of immunodeficiency, common variable, type 7 (CVID7) [MIM:614699]. A primary immunodeficiency characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins; the numbers of circulating B cells is usually in the normal range, but can be low.
[CO3_HUMAN] C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C3b can bind covalently, via its reactive thioester, to cell surface carbohydrates or immune aggregates.        Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C3, C3a anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces the contraction of smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and causes histamine release from mast cells and basophilic leukocytes.        Acylation stimulating protein (ASP): adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes, regulating fat storage and playing a role in postprandial TG clearance. Appears to stimulate TG synthesis via activation of the PLC, MAPK and AKT signaling pathways. Ligand for GPR77. Promotes the phosphorylation, ARRB2-mediated internalization and recycling of GPR77.        [CR2_HUMAN] Receptor for complement C3Dd, for the Epstein-Barr virus on human B-cells and T-cells and for HNRPU. Participates in B lymphocytes activation.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is an important receptor that amplifies B lymphocyte activation by bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. CR2 ligands include complement C3d and Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein 350/220. We describe the x-ray structure of this CR2 domain in complex with C3d at 2.0 angstroms. The structure reveals extensive main chain interactions between C3d and only one short consensus repeat (SCR) of CR2 and substantial SCR side-side packing. These results provide a detailed understanding of receptor-ligand interactions in this protein family and reveal potential target sites for molecular drug design.
Structure of complement receptor 2 in complex with its C3d ligand.,Szakonyi G, Guthridge JM, Li D, Young K, Holers VM, Chen XS Science. 2001 Jun 1;292(5522):1725-8. PMID:11387479
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.