[SOMA_HUMAN] Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 1A (IGHD1A) [MIM:262400]; also known as pituitary dwarfism I. IGHD1A is an autosomal recessive deficiency of GH which causes short stature. IGHD1A patients have an absence of GH with severe dwarfism and often develop anti-GH antibodies when given exogenous GH. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 1B (IGHD1B) [MIM:612781]; also known as dwarfism of Sindh. IGHD1B is an autosomal recessive deficiency of GH which causes short stature. IGHD1B patients have low but detectable levels of GH. Dwarfism is less severe than in IGHD1A and patients usually respond well to exogenous GH. Defects in GH1 are the cause of Kowarski syndrome (KWKS) [MIM:262650]; also known as pituitary dwarfism VI. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 2 (IGHD2) [MIM:173100]. IGHD2 is an autosomal dominant deficiency of GH which causes short stature. Clinical severity is variable. Patients have a positive response and immunologic tolerance to growth hormone therapy.
[SOMA_HUMAN] Plays an important role in growth control. Its major role in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues.
↑ Igarashi Y, Ogawa M, Kamijo T, Iwatani N, Nishi Y, Kohno H, Masumura T, Koga J. A new mutation causing inherited growth hormone deficiency: a compound heterozygote of a 6.7 kb deletion and a two base deletion in the third exon of the GH-1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jul;2(7):1073-4. PMID:8364549
↑ Takahashi Y, Shirono H, Arisaka O, Takahashi K, Yagi T, Koga J, Kaji H, Okimura Y, Abe H, Tanaka T, Chihara K. Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution. J Clin Invest. 1997 Sep 1;100(5):1159-65. PMID:9276733 doi:10.1172/JCI119627
↑ Petkovic V, Besson A, Thevis M, Lochmatter D, Eble A, Fluck CE, Mullis PE. Evaluation of the biological activity of a growth hormone (GH) mutant (R77C) and its impact on GH responsiveness and stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;92(8):2893-901. Epub 2007 May 22. PMID:17519310 doi:10.1210/jc.2006-2238