RAC1-RHOGDI COMPLEX INVOLVED IN NADPH OXIDASE ACTIVATION
[RAC1_HUMAN] Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion.     Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction.     [GDIR1_HUMAN] Regulates the GDP/GTP exchange reaction of the Rho proteins by inhibiting the dissociation of GDP from them, and the subsequent binding of GTP to them. In glioma cells, inhibits cell migration and invasion by mediating the signals of SEMA5A and PLXNB3 that lead to inactivation of RAC1 (By similarity).
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A heterodimer of prenylated Rac1 and Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor was purified and found to be competent in NADPH oxidase activation. Small angle neutron scattering experiments confirmed a 1:1 stoichiometry. The crystal structure of the Rac1-RhoGDI complex was determined at 2.7 A resolution. In this complex in which Rac1 is bound to GDP, the switch I region of Rac1 is in the GDP conformation whereas the switch II region resembles that of a GTP-bound GTPase. Two types of interaction between RhoGTPases and RhoGDI were investigated. The lipid-protein interaction between the geranylgeranyl moiety of Rac1 and RhoGDI resulted in numerous structural changes in the core of RhoGDI. The interactions between Rac1 and RhoGDI occur through hydrogen bonds which involve a number of residues of Rac1, namely, Tyr64(Rac), Arg66(Rac), His103(Rac), and His104(Rac), conserved within the Rho family and localized in the switch II region or in its close neighborhood. Moreover, in the switch II region of Rac1, hydrophobic interactions involving Leu67(Rac) and Leu70(Rac) contribute to the stability of the Rac1-RhoGDI complex. Inhibition of the GDP-GTP exchange in Rac1 upon binding to RhoGDI partly results from interaction of Thr35(Rac) with Asp45(GDI). In the Rac1-RhoGDI complex, the accessibility of the effector loops of Rac1 probably accounts for the ability of the Rac1-RhoGDI complex to activate the NADPH oxidase.
Crystal structure of the Rac1-RhoGDI complex involved in nadph oxidase activation.,Grizot S, Faure J, Fieschi F, Vignais PV, Dagher MC, Pebay-Peyroula E Biochemistry. 2001 Aug 28;40(34):10007-13. PMID:11513578
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.