[FA7_HUMAN] Defects in F7 are the cause of factor VII deficiency (FA7D) [MIM:227500]. A hemorrhagic disease with variable presentation. The clinical picture can be very severe, with the early occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhages or repeated hemarthroses, or, in contrast, moderate with cutaneous-mucosal hemorrhages (epistaxis, menorrhagia) or hemorrhages provoked by a surgical intervention. Finally, numerous subjects are completely asymptomatic despite very low factor VII levels.
[FA7_HUMAN] Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium.
Factor VIIa initiates the extrinsic coagulation cascade; this event requires a delicately balanced regulation that is implemented on different levels, including a sophisticated multi-step activation mechanism of factor VII. Its central role in hemostasis and thrombosis makes factor VIIa a key target of pharmaceutical research. We succeeded, for the first time, in recombinantly producing N-terminally truncated factor VII (rf7) in an Escherichia coli expression system by employing an oxidative, in vitro, folding protocol, which depends critically on the presence of ethylene glycol. Activated recombinant factor VIIa (rf7a) was crystallised in the presence of the reversible S1-site inhibitor benzamidine. Comparison of this 1.69A crystal structure with that of an inhibitor-free and sulphate-free, but isomorphous crystal form identified structural details of factor VIIa stimulation. The stabilisation of Asp189-Ser190 by benzamidine and the capping of the intermediate helix by a sulphate ion appear to be sufficient to mimic the disorder-order transition conferred by the cofactor tissue factor (TF) and the substrate factor X. Factor VIIa shares with the homologous factor IXa, but not factor Xa, a bell-shaped activity modulation dependent on ethylene glycol. The ethylene glycol-binding site of rf7a was identified in the vicinity of the 60 loop. Ethylene glycol binding induces a significant conformational rearrangement of the 60 loop. This region serves as a recognition site of the physiologic substrate, factor X, which is common to both factor VIIa and factor IXa. These results provide a mechanistic framework of substrate-assisted catalysis of both factor VIIa and factor IXa.
Crystal structures of uninhibited factor VIIa link its cofactor and substrate-assisted activation to specific interactions.,Sichler K, Banner DW, D'Arcy A, Hopfner KP, Huber R, Bode W, Kresse GB, Kopetzki E, Brandstetter H J Mol Biol. 2002 Sep 20;322(3):591-603. PMID:12225752
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Bernardi F, Liney DL, Patracchini P, Gemmati D, Legnani C, Arcieri P, Pinotti M, Redaelli R, Ballerini G, Pemberton S, et al.. Molecular defects in CRM+ factor VII deficiencies: modelling of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of FVII. Br J Haematol. 1994 Mar;86(3):610-8. PMID:8043443
↑ O'Brien DP, Gale KM, Anderson JS, McVey JH, Miller GJ, Meade TW, Tuddenham EG. Purification and characterization of factor VII 304-Gln: a variant molecule with reduced activity isolated from a clinically unaffected male. Blood. 1991 Jul 1;78(1):132-40. PMID:2070047
↑ Marchetti G, Patracchini P, Gemmati D, DeRosa V, Pinotti M, Rodorigo G, Casonato A, Girolami A, Bernardi F. Detection of two missense mutations and characterization of a repeat polymorphism in the factor VII gene (F7). Hum Genet. 1992 Jul;89(5):497-502. PMID:1634227
↑ Marchetti G, Ferrati M, Patracchini P, Redaelli R, Bernardi F. A missense mutation (178Cys-->Tyr) and two neutral dimorphisms (115His and 333Ser) in the human coagulation factor VII gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jul;2(7):1055-6. PMID:8364544
↑ Chaing S, Clarke B, Sridhara S, Chu K, Friedman P, VanDusen W, Roberts HR, Blajchman M, Monroe DM, High KA. Severe factor VII deficiency caused by mutations abolishing the cleavage site for activation and altering binding to tissue factor. Blood. 1994 Jun 15;83(12):3524-35. PMID:8204879
↑ Bernardi F, Castaman G, Redaelli R, Pinotti M, Lunghi B, Rodeghiero F, Marchetti G. Topologically equivalent mutations causing dysfunctional coagulation factors VII (294Ala-->Val) and X (334Ser-->Pro). Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Jul;3(7):1175-7. PMID:7981691
↑ Ohiwa M, Hayashi T, Wada H, Minamikawa K, Shirakawa S, Suzuki K. Factor VII Mie: homozygous asymptomatic type I deficiency caused by an amino acid substitution of His (CAC) for Arg(247) (CGC) in the catalytic domain. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Jun;71(6):773-7. PMID:7974346
↑ Arbini AA, Mannucci M, Bauer KA. A Thr359Met mutation in factor VII of a patient with a hereditary deficiency causes defective secretion of the molecule. Blood. 1996 Jun 15;87(12):5085-94. PMID:8652821
↑ Bharadwaj D, Iino M, Kontoyianni M, Smith KJ, Foster DC, Kisiel W. Factor VII central. A novel mutation in the catalytic domain that reduces tissue factor binding, impairs activation by factor Xa, and abolishes amidolytic and coagulant activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 29;271(48):30685-91. PMID:8940045
↑ Tamary H, Fromovich Y, Shalmon L, Reich Z, Dym O, Lanir N, Brenner B, Paz M, Luder AS, Blau O, Korostishevsky M, Zaizov R, Seligsohn U. Ala244Val is a common, probably ancient mutation causing factor VII deficiency in Moroccan and Iranian Jews. Thromb Haemost. 1996 Sep;76(3):283-91. PMID:8883260
↑ Leonard BJ, Chen Q, Blajchman MA, Ofosu FA, Sridhara S, Yang D, Clarke BJ. Factor VII deficiency caused by a structural variant N57D of the first epidermal growth factor domain. Blood. 1998 Jan 1;91(1):142-8. PMID:9414278
↑ Ozawa T, Takikawa Y, Niiya K, Ejiri N, Suzuki K, Sato S, Sakuragawa N. Factor VII Morioka (FVII L-26P): a homozygous missense mutation in the signal sequence identified in a patient with factor VII deficiency. Br J Haematol. 1998 Apr;101(1):47-9. PMID:9576180
↑ Alshinawi C, Scerri C, Galdies R, Aquilina A, Felice AE. Two new missense mutations (P134T and A244V) in the coagulation factor VII gene. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S189-91. PMID:9452082
↑ Au WY, Lam CC, Chan EC, Kwong YL. Two novel factor VII gene mutations in a Chinese family with factor VII deficiency. Br J Haematol. 2000 Oct;111(1):143-5. PMID:11091194
↑ Millar DS, Kemball-Cook G, McVey JH, Tuddenham EG, Mumford AD, Attock GB, Reverter JC, Lanir N, Parapia LA, Reynaud J, Meili E, von Felton A, Martinowitz U, Prangnell DR, Krawczak M, Cooper DN. Molecular analysis of the genotype-phenotype relationship in factor VII deficiency. Hum Genet. 2000 Oct;107(4):327-42. PMID:11129332
↑ Nagaizumi K, Inaba H, Suzuki T, Hatta Y, Hagiwara T, Amano K, Arai M, Fukutake K. Two double heterozygous mutations in the F7 gene show different manifestations. Br J Haematol. 2002 Dec;119(4):1052-8. PMID:12472587
↑ Takamiya O, Hino K. A patient homozygous for a Gly354Cys mutation in factor VII that results in severely impaired secretion of the molecule, but not complete deficiency. Br J Haematol. 2004 Feb;124(3):336-42. PMID:14717781
↑ Mota L, Shetty S, Idicula-Thomas S, Ghosh K. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Factor VII deficiency patients from Western India. Clin Chim Acta. 2009 Nov;409(1-2):106-11. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2009.09.007. Epub, 2009 Sep 13. PMID:19751712 doi:10.1016/j.cca.2009.09.007
↑ Herrmann FH, Wulff K, Auerswald G, Schulman S, Astermark J, Batorova A, Kreuz W, Pollmann H, Ruiz-Saez A, De Bosch N, Salazar-Sanchez L. Factor VII deficiency: clinical manifestation of 717 subjects from Europe and Latin America with mutations in the factor 7 gene. Haemophilia. 2009 Jan;15(1):267-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2008.01910.x. Epub, 2008 Oct 30. PMID:18976247 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2008.01910.x
↑ Landau D, Rosenberg N, Zivelin A, Staretz-Chacham O, Kapelushnik J. Familial factor VII deficiency with foetal and neonatal fatal cerebral haemorrhage associated with homozygosis to Gly180Arg mutation. Haemophilia. 2009 May;15(3):774-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2009.02004.x. PMID:19432927 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2009.02004.x
↑ Kwon MJ, Yoo KY, Lee KO, Kim SH, Kim HJ. Recurrent mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in hereditary factor VII deficiency in Korea. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011 Mar;22(2):102-5. doi:, 10.1097/MBC.0b013e328343641a. PMID:21206266 doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e328343641a
↑ Jiang M, Wang Z, Yu Z, Bai X, Su J, Cao L, Zhang W, Ruan C. A novel missense mutation close to the charge-stabilizing system in a patient with congenital factor VII deficiency. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011 Jun;22(4):264-70. doi:, 10.1097/MBC.0b013e3283447388. PMID:21372693 doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e3283447388
↑ Sichler K, Banner DW, D'Arcy A, Hopfner KP, Huber R, Bode W, Kresse GB, Kopetzki E, Brandstetter H. Crystal structures of uninhibited factor VIIa link its cofactor and substrate-assisted activation to specific interactions. J Mol Biol. 2002 Sep 20;322(3):591-603. PMID:12225752