[CSKP_HUMAN] Defects in CASK are the cause of mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) [MIM:300749]. A disorder characterized by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptative behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Patients with mental retardation X-linked CASK-related can manifest a severe phenotype consisting of severe intellectual deficit, congenital or postnatal microcephaly, disproportionate brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia. A milder phenotype consists of mental retardation alone or associated with nystagmus. Defects in CASK are the cause of FG syndrome type 4 (FGS4) [MIM:300422]. FG syndrome (FGS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, relative macrocephaly, hypotonia and constipation.
[CSKP_HUMAN] Multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel trafficking. Contributes to neural development and regulation of gene expression via interaction with the transcription factor TRB1. Binds to cell-surface proteins, including amyloid precursor protein, neurexins and syndecans. May mediate a link between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton via its interaction with syndecan and with the actin/spectrin-binding protein 4.1.
PDZ domain containing proteins assist formation of cell-cell junctions and localization of membrane protein receptors and ion channels. PDZ domains interact with the C-terminal residues of a particular target membrane protein. Based on their binding specificities and sequence homologies, PDZ domains fall into two classes. The first crystal structure of a class II PDZ domain, that of hCASK, has been solved by multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing. Complex formation with the C-terminus of a neighboring non-crystallographically related PDZ domain reveals interactions between hCASK and its ligand. Class II PDZ domains differ from class I domains by formation of a second hydrophobic binding pocket. The C-terminal carboxylate binding loop of the PDZ domain is structurally conserved in both classes suggesting a generalized carboxylate binding motif (h-Gly-h) where h is a hydrophobic residue.
Crystal structure of the hCASK PDZ domain reveals the structural basis of class II PDZ domain target recognition.,Daniels DL, Cohen AR, Anderson JM, Brunger AT Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Apr;5(4):317-25. PMID:9546224
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Najm J, Horn D, Wimplinger I, Golden JA, Chizhikov VV, Sudi J, Christian SL, Ullmann R, Kuechler A, Haas CA, Flubacher A, Charnas LR, Uyanik G, Frank U, Klopocki E, Dobyns WB, Kutsche K. Mutations of CASK cause an X-linked brain malformation phenotype with microcephaly and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. Nat Genet. 2008 Sep;40(9):1065-7. doi: 10.1038/ng.194. PMID:19165920 doi:10.1038/ng.194
↑ Piluso G, D'Amico F, Saccone V, Bismuto E, Rotundo IL, Di Domenico M, Aurino S, Schwartz CE, Neri G, Nigro V. A missense mutation in CASK causes FG syndrome in an Italian family. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;84(2):162-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.12.018. Epub 2009, Feb 5. PMID:19200522 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.12.018
↑ Daniels DL, Cohen AR, Anderson JM, Brunger AT. Crystal structure of the hCASK PDZ domain reveals the structural basis of class II PDZ domain target recognition. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Apr;5(4):317-25. PMID:9546224