|1lb6, resolution 1.80Å ()|
|Gene:||TRAF6 (Homo sapiens), CD40 (Homo sapiens)|
Tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is the only TRAF family member that participates in signal transduction of both the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)/Toll-like receptor (TLR) superfamily; it is important for adaptive immunity, innate immunity and bone homeostasis. Here we report crystal structures of TRAF6, alone and in complex with TRAF6-binding peptides from CD40 and TRANCE-R (also known as RANK), members of the TNFR superfamily, to gain insight into the mechanism by which TRAF6 mediates several signalling cascades. A 40 degrees difference in the directions of the bound peptides in TRAF6 and TRAF2 shows that there are marked structural differences between receptor recognition by TRAF6 and other TRAFs. The structural determinant of the petide TRAF6 interaction reveals a Pro-X-Glu-X-X-(aromatic/acidic residue) TRAF6-binding motif, which is present not only in CD40 and TRANCE-R but also in the three IRAK adapter kinases for IL-1R/TLR signalling. Cell-permeable peptides with the TRAF6-binding motif inhibit TRAF6 signalling, which indicates their potential as therapeutic modulators. Our studies identify a universal mechanism by which TRAF6 regulates several signalling cascades in adaptive immunity, innate immunity and bone homeostasis.
Distinct molecular mechanism for initiating TRAF6 signalling., Ye H, Arron JR, Lamothe B, Cirilli M, Kobayashi T, Shevde NK, Segal D, Dzivenu OK, Vologodskaia M, Yim M, Du K, Singh S, Pike JW, Darnay BG, Choi Y, Wu H, Nature. 2002 Jul 25;418(6896):443-7. PMID:12140561
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[TNR5_HUMAN] Defects in CD40 are the cause of immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM type 3 (HIGM3) [MIM:606843]. A rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels with absence of IgG, IgA, and IgE. It results in a profound susceptibility to bacterial infections.
[TRAF6_HUMAN] E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with UBE2N and UBE2V1, mediates the synthesis of 'Lys-63'-linked-polyubiquitin chains conjugated to proteins, such as IKBKG, AKT1 and AKT2. Also mediates ubiquitination of free/unanchored polyubiquitin chain that leads to MAP3K7 activation. Leads to the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. May be essential for the formation of functional osteoclasts. Seems to also play a role in dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and/or activation. Represses c-Myb-mediated transactivation, in B-lymphocytes. Adapter protein that seems to play a role in signal transduction initiated via TNF receptor, IL-1 receptor and IL-17 receptor. Regulates osteoclast differentiation by mediating the activation of adapter protein complex 1 (AP-1) and NF-kappa-B, in response to RANK-L stimulation. [TNR5_HUMAN] Receptor for TNFSF5/CD40LG.
About this Structure
- Ye H, Arron JR, Lamothe B, Cirilli M, Kobayashi T, Shevde NK, Segal D, Dzivenu OK, Vologodskaia M, Yim M, Du K, Singh S, Pike JW, Darnay BG, Choi Y, Wu H. Distinct molecular mechanism for initiating TRAF6 signalling. Nature. 2002 Jul 25;418(6896):443-7. PMID:12140561 doi:10.1038/nature00888
- ↑ Ferrari S, Giliani S, Insalaco A, Al-Ghonaium A, Soresina AR, Loubser M, Avanzini MA, Marconi M, Badolato R, Ugazio AG, Levy Y, Catalan N, Durandy A, Tbakhi A, Notarangelo LD, Plebani A. Mutations of CD40 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of immunodeficiency with hyper IgM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 23;98(22):12614-9. PMID:11675497 doi:10.1073/pnas.221456898
- ↑ Cao Z, Xiong J, Takeuchi M, Kurama T, Goeddel DV. TRAF6 is a signal transducer for interleukin-1. Nature. 1996 Oct 3;383(6599):443-6. PMID:8837778 doi:10.1038/383443a0
- ↑ Deng L, Wang C, Spencer E, Yang L, Braun A, You J, Slaughter C, Pickart C, Chen ZJ. Activation of the IkappaB kinase complex by TRAF6 requires a dimeric ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex and a unique polyubiquitin chain. Cell. 2000 Oct 13;103(2):351-61. PMID:11057907
- ↑ Wang Y, Tang Y, Teng L, Wu Y, Zhao X, Pei G. Association of beta-arrestin and TRAF6 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling. Nat Immunol. 2006 Feb;7(2):139-47. Epub 2005 Dec 25. PMID:16378096 doi:10.1038/ni1294
- ↑ Lamothe B, Besse A, Campos AD, Webster WK, Wu H, Darnay BG. Site-specific Lys-63-linked tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 auto-ubiquitination is a critical determinant of I kappa B kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):4102-12. Epub 2006 Nov 29. PMID:17135271 doi:10.1074/jbc.M609503200
- ↑ Pham LV, Zhou HJ, Lin-Lee YC, Tamayo AT, Yoshimura LC, Fu L, Darnay BG, Ford RJ. Nuclear tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 in lymphoid cells negatively regulates c-Myb-mediated transactivation through small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 modification. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 22;283(8):5081-9. Epub 2007 Dec 19. PMID:18093978 doi:10.1074/jbc.M706307200
- ↑ Sorrentino A, Thakur N, Grimsby S, Marcusson A, von Bulow V, Schuster N, Zhang S, Heldin CH, Landstrom M. The type I TGF-beta receptor engages TRAF6 to activate TAK1 in a receptor kinase-independent manner. Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Oct;10(10):1199-207. doi: 10.1038/ncb1780. Epub 2008 Aug 31. PMID:18758450 doi:10.1038/ncb1780
- ↑ Xia ZP, Sun L, Chen X, Pineda G, Jiang X, Adhikari A, Zeng W, Chen ZJ. Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Nature. 2009 Sep 3;461(7260):114-9. doi: 10.1038/nature08247. Epub 2009 Aug 12. PMID:19675569 doi:10.1038/nature08247
- ↑ Yang WL, Wang J, Chan CH, Lee SW, Campos AD, Lamothe B, Hur L, Grabiner BC, Lin X, Darnay BG, Lin HK. The E3 ligase TRAF6 regulates Akt ubiquitination and activation. Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1134-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1175065. PMID:19713527 doi:10.1126/science.1175065
- ↑ Ye H, Arron JR, Lamothe B, Cirilli M, Kobayashi T, Shevde NK, Segal D, Dzivenu OK, Vologodskaia M, Yim M, Du K, Singh S, Pike JW, Darnay BG, Choi Y, Wu H. Distinct molecular mechanism for initiating TRAF6 signalling. Nature. 2002 Jul 25;418(6896):443-7. PMID:12140561 doi:10.1038/nature00888
- ↑ Yin Q, Lin SC, Lamothe B, Lu M, Lo YC, Hura G, Zheng L, Rich RL, Campos AD, Myszka DG, Lenardo MJ, Darnay BG, Wu H. E2 interaction and dimerization in the crystal structure of TRAF6. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009 Jun;16(6):658-66. Epub 2009 May 24. PMID:19465916 doi:10.1038/nsmb.1605