[SMAD4_HUMAN] Defects in SMAD4 are a cause of pancreatic cancer (PNCA) [MIM:260350]. Defects in SMAD4 are a cause of juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) [MIM:174900]; also known as juvenile intestinal polyposis (JIP). JPS is an autosomal dominant gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis syndrome in which patients are at risk for developing gastrointestinal cancers. The lesions are typified by a smooth histological appearance, predominant stroma, cystic spaces and lack of a smooth muscle core. Multiple juvenile polyps usually occur in a number of Mendelian disorders. Sometimes, these polyps occur without associated features as in JPS; here, polyps tend to occur in the large bowel and are associated with an increased risk of colon and other gastrointestinal cancers. Defects in SMAD4 are a cause of juvenile polyposis/hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome (JP/HHT) [MIM:175050]. JP/HHT syndrome phenotype consists of the coexistence of juvenile polyposis (JIP) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) [MIM:187300] in a single individual. JIP and HHT are autosomal dominant disorders with distinct and non-overlapping clinical features. The former, an inherited gastrointestinal malignancy predisposition, is caused by mutations in SMAD4 or BMPR1A, and the latter is a vascular malformation disorder caused by mutations in ENG or ACVRL1. All four genes encode proteins involved in the transforming-growth-factor-signaling pathway. Although there are reports of patients and families with phenotypes of both disorders combined, the genetic etiology of this association is unknown. Defects in SMAD4 may be a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Defects in SMAD4 may be a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH1) [MIM:178600]. A rare disorder characterized by plexiform lesions of proliferating endothelial cells in pulmonary arterioles. The lesions lead to elevated pulmonary arterial pression, right ventricular failure, and death. The disease can occur from infancy throughout life and it has a mean age at onset of 36 years. Penetrance is reduced. Although familial PPH1 is rare, cases secondary to known etiologies are more common and include those associated with the appetite-suppressant drugs. Defects in SMAD4 are the cause of Myhre syndrome (MYHRS) [MIM:139210]. MYHRS is a syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, generalized muscle hypertrophy and striking muscular build, decreased joint mobility, cryptorchidism, and unusual facies. Dysmorphic facial features include microcephaly, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, and blepharophimosis. Typical skeletal anomalies are short stature, square body shape, broad ribs, iliac hypoplasia, brachydactyly, flattened vertebrae, and thickened calvaria. Other features, such as congenital heart disease, may also occur.
[SMAD4_HUMAN] Common SMAD (co-SMAD) is the coactivator and mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor). Component of the heterotrimeric SMAD2/SMAD3-SMAD4 complex that forms in the nucleus and is required for the TGF-mediated signaling. Promotes binding of the SMAD2/SMAD4/FAST-1 complex to DNA and provides an activation function required for SMAD1 or SMAD2 to stimulate transcription. Component of the multimeric SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex which forms at the AP1 promoter site; required for syngernistic transcriptional activity in response to TGF-beta. May act as a tumor suppressor. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator. [SKI_HUMAN] May play a role in terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle cells but not in the determination of cells to the myogenic lineage. Functions as a repressor of TGF-beta signaling.
The Ski family of nuclear oncoproteins represses TGF-beta signaling through interactions with the Smad proteins. The crystal structure of the Smad4 binding domain of human c-Ski in complex with the MH2 domain of Smad4 reveals specific recognition of the Smad4 L3 loop region by a highly conserved interaction loop (I loop) from Ski. The Ski binding surface on Smad4 significantly overlaps with that required for binding of the R-Smads. Indeed, Ski disrupts the formation of a functional complex between the Co- and R-Smads, explaining how it could lead to repression of TGF-beta, activin, and BMP responses. Intriguingly, the structure of the Ski fragment, stabilized by a bound zinc atom, resembles the SAND domain, in which the corresponding I loop is responsible for DNA binding.
Structural mechanism of Smad4 recognition by the nuclear oncoprotein Ski: insights on Ski-mediated repression of TGF-beta signaling.,Wu JW, Krawitz AR, Chai J, Li W, Zhang F, Luo K, Shi Y Cell. 2002 Nov 1;111(3):357-67. PMID:12419246
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Sayed MG, Ahmed AF, Ringold JR, Anderson ME, Bair JL, Mitros FA, Lynch HT, Tinley ST, Petersen GM, Giardiello FM, Vogelstein B, Howe JR. Germline SMAD4 or BMPR1A mutations and phenotype of juvenile polyposis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002 Nov;9(9):901-6. PMID:12417513
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↑ Caputo V, Cianetti L, Niceta M, Carta C, Ciolfi A, Bocchinfuso G, Carrani E, Dentici ML, Biamino E, Belligni E, Garavelli L, Boccone L, Melis D, Andria G, Gelb BD, Stella L, Silengo M, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M. A restricted spectrum of mutations in the SMAD4 tumor-suppressor gene underlies Myhre syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Jan 13;90(1):161-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.011. PMID:22243968 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.011
↑ Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Abhyankar A, Le Goff W, Serre V, Afenjar A, Destree A, di Rocco M, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Marlin S, Simon M, Tolmie J, Verloes A, Casanova JL, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V. Mutations at a single codon in Mad homology 2 domain of SMAD4 cause Myhre syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Dec 11;44(1):85-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.1016. PMID:22158539 doi:10.1038/ng.1016
↑ Liu F, Pouponnot C, Massague J. Dual role of the Smad4/DPC4 tumor suppressor in TGFbeta-inducible transcriptional complexes. Genes Dev. 1997 Dec 1;11(23):3157-67. PMID:9389648
↑ Seong HA, Jung H, Kim KT, Ha H. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12272-89. Epub 2007 Feb 27. PMID:17327236 doi:10.1074/jbc.M609279200
↑ Takahata M, Inoue Y, Tsuda H, Imoto I, Koinuma D, Hayashi M, Ichikura T, Yamori T, Nagasaki K, Yoshida M, Matsuoka M, Morishita K, Yuki K, Hanyu A, Miyazawa K, Inazawa J, Miyazono K, Imamura T. SKI and MEL1 cooperate to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta signal in gastric cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jan 30;284(5):3334-44. Epub 2008 Dec 1. PMID:19049980 doi:M808989200
↑ Wu JW, Krawitz AR, Chai J, Li W, Zhang F, Luo K, Shi Y. Structural mechanism of Smad4 recognition by the nuclear oncoprotein Ski: insights on Ski-mediated repression of TGF-beta signaling. Cell. 2002 Nov 1;111(3):357-67. PMID:12419246