Crystal structure of a covalent intermediate of endogenous human arylsulfatase A
[ARSA_HUMAN] Defects in ARSA are a cause of leukodystrophy metachromatic (MLD) [MIM:250100]. MLD is a disease due to a lysosomal storage defect. It is characterized by intralysosomal storage of cerebroside-3-sulfate in neural and non-neural tissues, with a diffuse loss of myelin in the central nervous system. Progressive demyelination causes a variety of neurological symptoms, including gait disturbances, ataxias, optical atrophy, dementia, seizures, and spastic tetraparesis. Three forms of the disease can be distinguished according to the age at onset: late-infantile, juvenile and adult.                                         Arylsulfatase A activity is defective in multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) [MIM:272200]. A clinically and biochemically heterogeneous disorder caused by the simultaneous impairment of all sulfatases, due to defective post-translational modification and activation. It combines features of individual sulfatase deficiencies such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, mucopolysaccharidosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, hydrocephalus, ichthyosis, neurologic deterioration and developmental delay. Note=Arylsulfatase A activity is impaired in multiple sulfatase deficiency due to mutations in SUMF1. SUMF1 mutations result in defective post-translational modification of ARSA at residue Cys-69 that is not converted to 3-oxoalanine. 
[ARSA_HUMAN] Hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The structures of human arylsulfatase A crystals soaked in solutions containing 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate and O-phospho-DL-tyrosine have been determined at 2.7- and 3.2-A resolution, respectively. The formylglycine in position 69, a residue crucial for catalytic activity, was unambiguously identified in both structures as forming a covalent bond to the phosphate moiety. A hydroxyl group is present at the Cbeta of residue 69 and the formation of one out of two possible stereomeric forms is strongly favoured. The structures confirm the importance of the gem-diol intermediate in the arylsulfatase's catalytic mechanism. The presence of an apparently stable covalent bond is consistent with the weak phosphatase activity observed for human arylsulfatase A. The structures of the complexes suggest that phosphate ions and phosphate esters inhibit arylsulfatase in non-covalent and covalent modes, respectively. The metal ion present in the active site of arylsulfatase A isolated from human placenta is Ca(2+) and not Mg(2+) as was found in the structure of the recombinant enzyme.
Crystal structure of a covalent intermediate of endogenous human arylsulfatase A.,Chruszcz M, Laidler P, Monkiewicz M, Ortlund E, Lebioda L, Lewinski K J Inorg Biochem. 2003 Aug 1;96(2-3):386-92. PMID:12888274
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.