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1nvw

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1nvw, resolution 2.70Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Gene: HRAS OR HRAS1 (Homo sapiens), SOS1 (Homo sapiens)
Related: 1bkd, 1nvu, 1nvv, 1nvx
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Structural evidence for feedback activation by RasGTP of the Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factor SOS

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Growth factor receptors activate Ras by recruiting the nucleotide exchange factor son of sevenless (SOS) to the cell membrane, thereby triggering the production of GTP-loaded Ras. Crystallographic analyses of Ras bound to the catalytic module of SOS have led to the unexpected discovery of a highly conserved Ras binding site on SOS that is located distal to the active site and is specific for Ras.GTP. The crystal structures suggest that Ras.GTP stabilizes the active site of SOS allosterically, and we show that Ras.GTP forms ternary complexes with SOS(cat) in solution and increases significantly the rate of SOS(cat)-stimulated nucleotide release from Ras. These results demonstrate the existence of a positive feedback mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of Ras.

Structural evidence for feedback activation by Ras.GTP of the Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factor SOS., Margarit SM, Sondermann H, Hall BE, Nagar B, Hoelz A, Pirruccello M, Bar-Sagi D, Kuriyan J, Cell. 2003 Mar 7;112(5):685-95. PMID:12628188

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[RASH_HUMAN] Defects in HRAS are the cause of faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome (FCSS) [MIM:218040]. A rare condition characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, distinctive facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities (typically pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or atrial tachycardia), tumor predisposition, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Defects in HRAS are the cause of congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS) [MIM:218040]. CMEMS is a variant of Costello syndrome.[8] Defects in HRAS may be a cause of susceptibility to Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]. Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all thyroid cancers. Although they are classified as variants of follicular neoplasms, they are more often multifocal and somewhat more aggressive and are less likely to take up iodine than are other follicular neoplasms. Note=Mutations which change positions 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of HRAS to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. Defects in HRAS are a cause of susceptibility to bladder cancer (BLC) [MIM:109800]. A malignancy originating in tissues of the urinary bladder. It often presents with multiple tumors appearing at different times and at different sites in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. They begin in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Bladder cancer is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental influences. Note=Defects in HRAS are the cause of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).[9] Defects in HRAS are the cause of Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFM) [MIM:163200]. A disease characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects. Many oral manifestations have been reported, not only including hypoplastic and malformed teeth, and mucosal papillomatosis, but also ankyloglossia, hemihyperplastic tongue, intraoral nevus, giant cell granuloma, ameloblastoma, bone cysts, follicular cysts, oligodontia, and odontodysplasia. Sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko and these can continue as linear intraoral lesions, as in mucosal papillomatosis.[10] [SOS1_HUMAN] Defects in SOS1 are the cause of gingival fibromatosis 1 (GGF1) [MIM:135300]; also known as GINGF1. Gingival fibromatosis is a rare overgrowth condition characterized by a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva. GGF1 is usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, although sporadic cases are common.[11] Defects in SOS1 are the cause of Noonan syndrome type 4 (NS4) [MIM:610733]. NS4 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, deafness, motor delay, and a bleeding diathesis. It is a genetically heterogeneous and relatively common syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000-2500 live births. Rarely, NS4 is associated with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). SOS1 mutations engender a high prevalence of pulmonary valve disease; atrial septal defects are less common.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

Function

[RASH_HUMAN] Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity.[20][21][22] [SOS1_HUMAN] Promotes the exchange of Ras-bound GDP by GTP.

About this Structure

1nvw is a 3 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Margarit SM, Sondermann H, Hall BE, Nagar B, Hoelz A, Pirruccello M, Bar-Sagi D, Kuriyan J. Structural evidence for feedback activation by Ras.GTP of the Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factor SOS. Cell. 2003 Mar 7;112(5):685-95. PMID:12628188
  1. Aoki Y, Niihori T, Kawame H, Kurosawa K, Ohashi H, Tanaka Y, Filocamo M, Kato K, Suzuki Y, Kure S, Matsubara Y. Germline mutations in HRAS proto-oncogene cause Costello syndrome. Nat Genet. 2005 Oct;37(10):1038-40. Epub 2005 Sep 18. PMID:16170316 doi:ng1641
  2. Gripp KW, Lin AE, Stabley DL, Nicholson L, Scott CI Jr, Doyle D, Aoki Y, Matsubara Y, Zackai EH, Lapunzina P, Gonzalez-Meneses A, Holbrook J, Agresta CA, Gonzalez IL, Sol-Church K. HRAS mutation analysis in Costello syndrome: genotype and phenotype correlation. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Jan 1;140(1):1-7. PMID:16329078 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31047
  3. Kerr B, Delrue MA, Sigaudy S, Perveen R, Marche M, Burgelin I, Stef M, Tang B, Eden OB, O'Sullivan J, De Sandre-Giovannoli A, Reardon W, Brewer C, Bennett C, Quarell O, M'Cann E, Donnai D, Stewart F, Hennekam R, Cave H, Verloes A, Philip N, Lacombe D, Levy N, Arveiler B, Black G. Genotype-phenotype correlation in Costello syndrome: HRAS mutation analysis in 43 cases. J Med Genet. 2006 May;43(5):401-5. Epub 2006 Jan 27. PMID:16443854 doi:jmg.2005.040352
  4. Zampino G, Pantaleoni F, Carta C, Cobellis G, Vasta I, Neri C, Pogna EA, De Feo E, Delogu A, Sarkozy A, Atzeri F, Selicorni A, Rauen KA, Cytrynbaum CS, Weksberg R, Dallapiccola B, Ballabio A, Gelb BD, Neri G, Tartaglia M. Diversity, parental germline origin, and phenotypic spectrum of de novo HRAS missense changes in Costello syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2007 Mar;28(3):265-72. PMID:17054105 doi:10.1002/humu.20431
  5. Gripp KW, Innes AM, Axelrad ME, Gillan TL, Parboosingh JS, Davies C, Leonard NJ, Lapointe M, Doyle D, Catalano S, Nicholson L, Stabley DL, Sol-Church K. Costello syndrome associated with novel germline HRAS mutations: an attenuated phenotype? Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Mar 15;146A(6):683-90. PMID:18247425 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32227
  6. Lo IF, Brewer C, Shannon N, Shorto J, Tang B, Black G, Soo MT, Ng DK, Lam ST, Kerr B. Severe neonatal manifestations of Costello syndrome. J Med Genet. 2008 Mar;45(3):167-71. Epub 2007 Nov 26. PMID:18039947 doi:10.1136/jmg.2007.054411
  7. Gremer L, De Luca A, Merbitz-Zahradnik T, Dallapiccola B, Morlot S, Tartaglia M, Kutsche K, Ahmadian MR, Rosenberger G. Duplication of Glu37 in the switch I region of HRAS impairs effector/GAP binding and underlies Costello syndrome by promoting enhanced growth factor-dependent MAPK and AKT activation. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Mar 1;19(5):790-802. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp548. Epub 2009 Dec, 8. PMID:19995790 doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp548
  8. van der Burgt I, Kupsky W, Stassou S, Nadroo A, Barroso C, Diem A, Kratz CP, Dvorsky R, Ahmadian MR, Zenker M. Myopathy caused by HRAS germline mutations: implications for disturbed myogenic differentiation in the presence of constitutive HRas activation. J Med Genet. 2007 Jul;44(7):459-62. Epub 2007 Apr 5. PMID:17412879 doi:jmg.2007.049270
  9. Sakai E, Rikimaru K, Ueda M, Matsumoto Y, Ishii N, Enomoto S, Yamamoto H, Tsuchida N. The p53 tumor-suppressor gene and ras oncogene mutations in oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1992 Dec 2;52(6):867-72. PMID:1459726
  10. Groesser L, Herschberger E, Ruetten A, Ruivenkamp C, Lopriore E, Zutt M, Langmann T, Singer S, Klingseisen L, Schneider-Brachert W, Toll A, Real FX, Landthaler M, Hafner C. Postzygotic HRAS and KRAS mutations cause nevus sebaceous and Schimmelpenning syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Jun 10;44(7):783-7. doi: 10.1038/ng.2316. PMID:22683711 doi:10.1038/ng.2316
  11. Hart TC, Zhang Y, Gorry MC, Hart PS, Cooper M, Marazita ML, Marks JM, Cortelli JR, Pallos D. A mutation in the SOS1 gene causes hereditary gingival fibromatosis type 1. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Apr;70(4):943-54. Epub 2002 Feb 26. PMID:11868160 doi:S0002-9297(07)60301-2
  12. Roberts AE, Araki T, Swanson KD, Montgomery KT, Schiripo TA, Joshi VA, Li L, Yassin Y, Tamburino AM, Neel BG, Kucherlapati RS. Germline gain-of-function mutations in SOS1 cause Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2007 Jan;39(1):70-4. Epub 2006 Dec 3. PMID:17143285 doi:ng1926
  13. Tartaglia M, Pennacchio LA, Zhao C, Yadav KK, Fodale V, Sarkozy A, Pandit B, Oishi K, Martinelli S, Schackwitz W, Ustaszewska A, Martin J, Bristow J, Carta C, Lepri F, Neri C, Vasta I, Gibson K, Curry CJ, Siguero JP, Digilio MC, Zampino G, Dallapiccola B, Bar-Sagi D, Gelb BD. Gain-of-function SOS1 mutations cause a distinctive form of Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2007 Jan;39(1):75-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. PMID:17143282 doi:10.1038/ng1939
  14. Ko JM, Kim JM, Kim GH, Yoo HW. PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, and RAF1 gene analysis, and genotype-phenotype correlation in Korean patients with Noonan syndrome. J Hum Genet. 2008;53(11-12):999-1006. doi: 10.1007/s10038-008-0343-6. Epub 2008, Nov 20. PMID:19020799 doi:10.1007/s10038-008-0343-6
  15. Hanna N, Parfait B, Talaat IM, Vidaud M, Elsedfy HH. SOS1: a new player in the Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. Clin Genet. 2009 Jun;75(6):568-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01149.x. Epub, 2009 May 5. PMID:19438935 doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01149.x
  16. Longoni M, Moncini S, Cisternino M, Morella IM, Ferraiuolo S, Russo S, Mannarino S, Brazzelli V, Coi P, Zippel R, Venturin M, Riva P. Noonan syndrome associated with both a new Jnk-activating familial SOS1 and a de novo RAF1 mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Sep;152A(9):2176-84. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33564. PMID:20683980 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33564
  17. Fabretto A, Kutsche K, Harmsen MB, Demarini S, Gasparini P, Fertz MC, Zenker M. Two cases of Noonan syndrome with severe respiratory and gastroenteral involvement and the SOS1 mutation F623I. Eur J Med Genet. 2010 Sep-Oct;53(5):322-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.07.011. Epub , 2010 Jul 29. PMID:20673819 doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.07.011
  18. Denayer E, Devriendt K, de Ravel T, Van Buggenhout G, Smeets E, Francois I, Sznajer Y, Craen M, Leventopoulos G, Mutesa L, Vandecasseye W, Massa G, Kayserili H, Sciot R, Fryns JP, Legius E. Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010 Mar;49(3):242-52. doi: 10.1002/gcc.20735. PMID:19953625 doi:10.1002/gcc.20735
  19. Lepri F, De Luca A, Stella L, Rossi C, Baldassarre G, Pantaleoni F, Cordeddu V, Williams BJ, Dentici ML, Caputo V, Venanzi S, Bonaguro M, Kavamura I, Faienza MF, Pilotta A, Stanzial F, Faravelli F, Gabrielli O, Marino B, Neri G, Silengo MC, Ferrero GB, Torrrente I, Selicorni A, Mazzanti L, Digilio MC, Zampino G, Dallapiccola B, Gelb BD, Tartaglia M. SOS1 mutations in Noonan syndrome: molecular spectrum, structural insights on pathogenic effects, and genotype-phenotype correlations. Hum Mutat. 2011 Jul;32(7):760-72. doi: 10.1002/humu.21492. Epub 2011 Apr 28. PMID:21387466 doi:10.1002/humu.21492
  20. Guil S, de La Iglesia N, Fernandez-Larrea J, Cifuentes D, Ferrer JC, Guinovart JJ, Bach-Elias M. Alternative splicing of the human proto-oncogene c-H-ras renders a new Ras family protein that trafficks to cytoplasm and nucleus. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5178-87. PMID:14500341
  21. Lander HM, Hajjar DP, Hempstead BL, Mirza UA, Chait BT, Campbell S, Quilliam LA. A molecular redox switch on p21(ras). Structural basis for the nitric oxide-p21(ras) interaction. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 14;272(7):4323-6. PMID:9020151
  22. Williams JG, Pappu K, Campbell SL. Structural and biochemical studies of p21Ras S-nitrosylation and nitric oxide-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 27;100(11):6376-81. Epub 2003 May 9. PMID:12740440 doi:10.1073/pnas.1037299100

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