Structural evidence for feedback activation by RasGTP of the Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factor SOS
[RASH_HUMAN] Defects in HRAS are the cause of faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome (FCSS) [MIM:218040]. A rare condition characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, distinctive facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities (typically pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or atrial tachycardia), tumor predisposition, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities.       Defects in HRAS are the cause of congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS) [MIM:218040]. CMEMS is a variant of Costello syndrome. Defects in HRAS may be a cause of susceptibility to Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]. Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3% of all thyroid cancers. Although they are classified as variants of follicular neoplasms, they are more often multifocal and somewhat more aggressive and are less likely to take up iodine than are other follicular neoplasms. Note=Mutations which change positions 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of HRAS to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. Defects in HRAS are a cause of susceptibility to bladder cancer (BLC) [MIM:109800]. A malignancy originating in tissues of the urinary bladder. It often presents with multiple tumors appearing at different times and at different sites in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. They begin in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Bladder cancer is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental influences. Note=Defects in HRAS are the cause of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Defects in HRAS are the cause of Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFM) [MIM:163200]. A disease characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects. Many oral manifestations have been reported, not only including hypoplastic and malformed teeth, and mucosal papillomatosis, but also ankyloglossia, hemihyperplastic tongue, intraoral nevus, giant cell granuloma, ameloblastoma, bone cysts, follicular cysts, oligodontia, and odontodysplasia. Sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko and these can continue as linear intraoral lesions, as in mucosal papillomatosis. [SOS1_HUMAN] Defects in SOS1 are the cause of gingival fibromatosis 1 (GGF1) [MIM:135300]; also known as GINGF1. Gingival fibromatosis is a rare overgrowth condition characterized by a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva. GGF1 is usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, although sporadic cases are common. Defects in SOS1 are the cause of Noonan syndrome type 4 (NS4) [MIM:610733]. NS4 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, hypertelorism, cardiac anomalies, deafness, motor delay, and a bleeding diathesis. It is a genetically heterogeneous and relatively common syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000-2500 live births. Rarely, NS4 is associated with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). SOS1 mutations engender a high prevalence of pulmonary valve disease; atrial septal defects are less common.       
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Growth factor receptors activate Ras by recruiting the nucleotide exchange factor son of sevenless (SOS) to the cell membrane, thereby triggering the production of GTP-loaded Ras. Crystallographic analyses of Ras bound to the catalytic module of SOS have led to the unexpected discovery of a highly conserved Ras binding site on SOS that is located distal to the active site and is specific for Ras.GTP. The crystal structures suggest that Ras.GTP stabilizes the active site of SOS allosterically, and we show that Ras.GTP forms ternary complexes with SOS(cat) in solution and increases significantly the rate of SOS(cat)-stimulated nucleotide release from Ras. These results demonstrate the existence of a positive feedback mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of Ras.
Structural evidence for feedback activation by Ras.GTP of the Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factor SOS.,Margarit SM, Sondermann H, Hall BE, Nagar B, Hoelz A, Pirruccello M, Bar-Sagi D, Kuriyan J Cell. 2003 Mar 7;112(5):685-95. PMID:12628188
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.