Dissecting and Designing Inhibitor Selectivity Determinants at the S1 site Using an Artificial Ala190 Protease (Ala190 uPA)
[FA7_HUMAN] Defects in F7 are the cause of factor VII deficiency (FA7D) [MIM:227500]. A hemorrhagic disease with variable presentation. The clinical picture can be very severe, with the early occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhages or repeated hemarthroses, or, in contrast, moderate with cutaneous-mucosal hemorrhages (epistaxis, menorrhagia) or hemorrhages provoked by a surgical intervention. Finally, numerous subjects are completely asymptomatic despite very low factor VII levels.                       
[FA7_HUMAN] Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. [TF_HUMAN] Initiates blood coagulation by forming a complex with circulating factor VII or VIIa. The [TF:VIIa] complex activates factors IX or X by specific limited protolysis. TF plays a role in normal hemostasis by initiating the cell-surface assembly and propagation of the coagulation protease cascade.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A site-directed mutant of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), was produced to assess the contribution of the Ser190 side-chain to the affinity and selectivity of lead uPA inhibitors in the absence of other differences present in comparisons of natural proteases. Crystallography and enzymology involving WT and Ala190 uPA were used to calculate free energy binding contributions of hydrogen bonds involving the Ser190 hydroxyl group (O(gamma)(Ser190)) responsible for the remarkable selectivity of 6-halo-5-amidinoindole and 6-halo-5-amidinobenzimidazole inhibitors toward uPA and against natural Ala190 protease anti-targets. Crystal structures of uPA complexes of novel, active site-directed arylguanidine and 2-aminobenzimidazole inhibitors of WT uPA, together with associated K(i) values for WT and Ala190 uPA, also indicate a significant role of Ser190 in the binding of these classes of uPA inhibitors. Structures and associated K(i) values for a lead inhibitor (CA-11) bound to uPA and to five other proteases, as well as for other leads bound to multiple proteases, help reveal the features responsible for the potency (K(i)=11nM) and selectivity of the remarkably small inhibitor, CA-11. The 6-fluoro-5-amidinobenzimidzole, CA-11, is more than 1000-fold selective against natural Ala190 protease anti-targets, and more than 100-fold selective against other Ser190 anti-targets.
Dissecting and designing inhibitor selectivity determinants at the S1 site using an artificial Ala190 protease (Ala190 uPA).,Katz BA, Luong C, Ho JD, Somoza JR, Gjerstad E, Tang J, Williams SR, Verner E, Mackman RL, Young WB, Sprengeler PA, Chan H, Mortara K, Janc JW, McGrath ME J Mol Biol. 2004 Nov 19;344(2):527-47. PMID:15522303
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.